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Կաղապար:Use mdy dates

Կաղապար:Drugbox Streptomycin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.[1] This includes tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex, endocarditis, brucellosis, Burkholderia infection, plague, tularemia, and rat bite fever.[1] For active tuberculosis it is often given together with isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide.[2] It is given by injection into a vein or muscle.[1]

Ստրեպտոմիցին, հակաբիոտիկ, որը օգտագործվում է տարատեսակ բակտերիալ հիվանդությունների բուժման նպատակով։ Այդ բակտերիալ հիվանդություններն են՝ տուբերկուլյոզը, էնդոկարդիտը, բրուցելիոզը, ժանտախտը, տուլարեմիան, առնետի կծոցից առաջացող տենդը, միկոբակտերիաներով հարուցվող հիվանդությունները։ Ակտիվ տուբերկուլյոզի դեպքում հաճախ օգտագործվում է իզոնիազիդի, ռիֆամպիցինի և պիրազինամիդի հետ միասին։ Ընդունումը տեղի է ունենում ներերակային կամ միջմկանային ներարկումների միջոցով։

Հաճախ հանդիպող կողմնակի ազդեցություններ են գլխապտույտը, փսխումը, դեմքի թմրածությունը, տենդը և ցանը։ Հղիության ընթացքում օգտագործումը կարող է հանգեցնել պտղի մշտական լսողության կորստի։ Կրծքով կերակրողների համար դեղամիջոցը անվտանգ է։ Խորհուրդ չի տրվում օգտագործել միասթենիա գրավիս (ՄԳ, մկանաթուլություն) կամ այլ նյարդամկանային հիվանդություններ ունեցող անձանց։ Ստրեպտոմիցինը ամինոգլիկոզիդ է։ Այն արգելակում է բակտերայի 30S ռիբոսոմալ ենթամիավորի սպիտակուց սինթեզելու կարողությունը, ինչը հանգեցնում է բակտերիայի մահվան։

Common side effects include feeling like the world is spinning, vomiting, numbness of the face, fever, and rash.[1] Use during pregnancy may result in permanent deafness in the developing baby.[1] Use appears to be safe while breastfeeding.[2] It is not recommended in people with myasthenia gravis or other neuromuscular disorders.[2] Streptomycin is an aminoglycoside.[1] It works by blocking the ability of 30S ribosomal subunits to make proteins, which results in bacterial death.[1]

Ստրեպտոմիցինը հայտնագործվել է 1943թ․-ին՝ Streptomyces griseus-ից։ Այն գրանցված է ԱՀԿ հիմնական դեղերի ցանկում։ Մեծածախ արժեքը զարգացող երկրներում օրական կազմում է 0․38-ից 4․39 ԱՄՆ դոլար։ ԱՄՆ-ում բուժման արժեքը գերազանցում է 200 ԱՄՆ դոլարը։

Streptomycin was discovered in 1943 from Streptomyces griseus.[3][4] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, which lists the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[5] The wholesale cost in the developing world is between US$0.38 and $4.39 per day.[6] In the United States, a course of treatment costs more than $200.[7]

Uses[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Medication[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Streptomycin is traditionally given intramuscularly, and in many nations is only licensed to be administered intramuscularly, though in some regions the drug may also be administered intravenously.[8]

Pesticide[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Streptomycin also is used as a pesticide, to combat the growth of bacteria beyond human applications. Streptomycin controls bacterial diseases of certain fruit, vegetables, seed, and ornamental crops. A major use is in the control of fireblight on apple and pear trees. As in medical applications, extensive use can be associated with the development of resistant strains. Streptomycin could potentially be used to control cyanobacterial blooms in ornamental ponds and aquaria.[9] While some antibacterial antibiotics are inhibitory to certain eukaryotes, this seems not to be the case for streptomycin, especially in the case of anti-fungal activity.[10]

Cell culture[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Streptomycin, in combination with penicillin, is used in a standard antibiotic cocktail to prevent bacterial infection in cell culture.

Protein purification[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

When purifying protein from a biological extract, streptomycin sulfate is sometimes added as a means of removing nucleic acids. Since it binds to ribosomes and precipitates out of solution, it serves as a method for removing rRNA, mRNA, and even DNA if the extract is from a prokaryote.

Spectrum of activity[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Streptomycin can be used clinically to treat tuberculosis in combination with other medications and susceptible strains which cause bacterial endocarditis.

Side effects[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

The most concerning side effects, as with other aminoglycosides, are kidney toxicity and ear toxicity.[11] Transient or permanent deafness may result. The vestibular portion of cranial nerve VIII (the vestibulocochlear nerve) can be affected, resulting in tinnitus, vertigo, ataxia, kidney toxicity, and can potentially interfere with diagnosis of kidney malfunction.[12]

Common side effects include vertigo, vomiting, numbness of the face, fever, and rash. Fever and rashes may result from persistent use.

Use is not recommended during pregnancy.[1] Congenital deafness has been reported in children whose mothers received streptomycin during pregnancy.[1] Use appears to be okay while breastfeeding.[2]

It is not recommended in people with myasthenia gravis.[2]

Mechanism of action[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Streptomycin is a protein synthesis inhibitor. It binds to the small 16S rRNA of the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, interfering with the binding of formyl-methionyl-tRNA to the 30S subunit.[13] This leads to codon misreading, eventual inhibition of protein synthesis and ultimately death of microbial cells through mechanisms that are still not understood. Speculation on this mechanism indicates that the binding of the molecule to the 30S subunit interferes with 50S subunit association with the mRNA strand. This results in an unstable ribosomal-mRNA complex, leading to a frameshift mutation and defective protein synthesis; leading to cell death.[14] Humans have ribosomes which are structurally different from those in bacteria, so the drug does not have this effect in human cells. At low concentrations, however, streptomycin only inhibits growth of the bacteria by inducing prokaryotic ribosomes to misread mRNA.[15] Streptomycin is an antibiotic that inhibits both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria,[16] and is therefore a useful broad-spectrum antibiotic.

History[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Streptomycin was first isolated on October 19, 1943, by Albert Schatz, a PhD student in the laboratory of Selman Abraham Waksman at Rutgers University in a research project funded by Merck and Co.[17][18] Waksman and his laboratory staff discovered several antibiotics, including actinomycin, clavacin, streptothricin, streptomycin, grisein, neomycin, fradicin, candicidin, and candidin. Of these, streptomycin and neomycin found extensive application in the treatment of numerous infectious diseases. Streptomycin was the first antibiotic cure for tuberculosis (TB). In 1952 Waksman was the recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in recognition "for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic active against tuberculosis".[19] Waksman was later accused of playing down the role of Schatz who did the work under his supervision.[20][21][22][23]

The Rutgers team reported streptomycin in the medical literature in January 1944.[24] Within months they began working with William Feldman and H. Corwin Hinshaw of the Mayo Clinic with hopes of starting a human clinical trial of streptomycin in tuberculosis.[25]:209–241 The difficulty at first was even producing enough streptomycin to do a trial, because the research laboratory methods of creating small batches had not yet been translated to commercial large-batch production. They managed to do an animal study in a few guinea pigs with just 10 grams of the scarce drug, demonstrating survival.[25]:209–241 This was just enough evidence to get Merck & Co. to divert some resources from the young penicillin production program to start work toward streptomycin production.[25]:209–241

At the end of World War II, the United States Army experimented with streptomycin to treat life-threatening infections at a military hospital in Battle Creek, Michigan. The first patient treated did not survive; the second patient survived but became blind as a side effect of the treatment. In March 1946, the third patient—Robert J. Dole, later Majority Leader of the United States Senate and Presidential nominee—experienced a rapid and robust recovery.[26]

The first randomized trial of streptomycin against pulmonary tuberculosis was carried out in 1946 through 1948 by the MRC Tuberculosis Research Unit under the chairmanship of Geoffrey Marshall (1887–1982). The trial was neither double-blind nor placebo-controlled.[27] It is widely accepted to have been the first randomised curative trial.[28]

Results showed efficacy against TB, albeit with minor toxicity and acquired bacterial resistance to the drug.[27]

New Jersey[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Because streptomycin was isolated from a microbe discovered on New Jersey soil, and because of its activity against tuberculosis and Gram negative organisms, and in recognition of both the microbe and the antibiotic in the history of New Jersey, S. griseus was nominated as the Official New Jersey state microbe. The draft legislation was submitted by Senator Sam Thompson (R-12) in May 2017 as bill S3190 and Assemblywoman Annette Quijano (D-20) in June 2017 as bill A31900.[29][30]

See also[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

  • Philip D'Arcy Hart – The British medical researcher and pioneer in tuberculosis treatment in the early twentieth century.

References[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,6 1,7 1,8 «Streptomycin Sulfate»։ The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից December 20, 2016-ին։ Վերցված է December 8, 2016 
  2. 2,0 2,1 2,2 2,3 2,4 2,5 WHO Model Formulary 2008։ World Health Organization։ 2009։ էջեր 136, 144, 609։ ISBN 9789241547659։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից December 13, 2016-ին։ Վերցված է December 8, 2016 
  3. Torok Estee, Moran Ed, Cooke Fiona (2009)։ Oxford Handbook of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology (անգլերեն)։ OUP Oxford։ էջ Chapter 2։ ISBN 9780191039621։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից September 8, 2017-ին 
  4. Renneberg Reinhard, Demain Arnold L. (2008)։ Biotechnology for Beginners (անգլերեն)։ Elsevier։ էջ 103։ ISBN 9780123735812։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից September 10, 2017-ին 
  5. «WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)»։ World Health Organization։ April 2015։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից December 13, 2016-ին։ Վերցված է December 8, 2016 
  6. «Streptomycin Sulfate»։ International Drug Price Indicator Guide։ Վերցված է December 8, 2016 
  7. Hamilton Richart (2015)։ Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2015 Deluxe Lab-Coat Edition։ Jones & Bartlett Learning։ էջ 36։ ISBN 9781284057560 
  8. «Population pharmacokinetics of intravenous and intramuscular streptomycin in patients with tuberculosis»։ Pharmacotherapy 21 (9): 1037–1045։ October 2001։ PMID 11560193։ doi:10.1592/phco.21.13.1037.34625։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից October 5, 2011-ին։ Վերցված է May 25, 2010 
  9. «Effects of streptomycin on growth of algae Chlorella vulgaris and Microcystis aeruginosa»։ Environ. Toxicol. 27 (4): 229–37։ March 2012։ PMID 20725941։ doi:10.1002/tox.20636 
  10. «Antifungal Properties of Antibiotic Substances»։ J. Bacteriol. 49 (6): 585–94։ June 1945։ PMC 374091։ PMID 16560957 
  11. «Side effects of aminoglycosides on the kidney, ear and balance in cystic fibrosis»։ Thorax 65 (7): 654–8։ July 2010։ PMC 2921289։ PMID 20627927։ doi:10.1136/thx.2009.131532 
  12. «Streptomycin interference in Jaffe reaction — Possible false positive creatinine estimation in excessive dose exposure»։ Clinical Biochemistry 46 (1–2): 177–179։ 2013։ PMID 23123914։ doi:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2012.10.031 
  13. «Mutational analysis of S12 protein and implications for the accuracy of decoding by the ribosome»։ Journal of Molecular Biology 374 (4): 1065–76։ December 7, 2007։ PMC 2200631։ PMID 17967466։ doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2007.10.003 
  14. Raymon Lionel P. (2011)։ COMLEX Level 1 Pharmacology Lecture Notes։ Miami, FL: Kaplan, Inc.։ էջ 181։ CM4024K 
  15. Voet, Donald & Voet, Judith G. (2004)։ Biochemistry (3rd ed.)։ John Wiley & Sons։ էջ 1341։ ISBN 978-0-471-19350-0 
  16. Jan-Thorsten Schantz, Kee-Woei Ng (2004)։ A manual for primary human cell culture։ World Scientific։ էջ 89 
  17. Comroe JH Jr (1978)։ «Pay dirt: the story of streptomycin. Part I: from Waksman to Waksman»։ American Review of Respiratory Disease 117 (4): 773–781։ PMID 417651։ doi:10.1164/arrd.1978.117.4.773 (inactive 2019-08-20) 
  18. Kingston W (July 2004)։ «Streptomycin, Schatz v. Waksman, and the balance of credit for discovery»։ J Hist Med Allied Sci 59 (3): 441–62։ PMID 15270337։ doi:10.1093/jhmas/jrh091 
  19. Official list of Nobel Prize Laureates in Medicine Archived June 9, 2017, at the Wayback Machine.
  20. Wainwright, M. (1990)։ Miracle Cure: The Story of Penicillin and the Golden Age of Antibiotics։ Blackwell։ ISBN 9780631164920։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից September 10, 2017-ին։ Վերցված է December 29, 2014 
  21. «Streptomycin: discovery and resultant controversy»։ Hist Philos Life Sci 13 (1): 97–124։ 1991։ PMID 1882032 
  22. Kingston William (July 1, 2004)։ «Streptomycin, Schatz v. Waksman, and the balance of credit for discovery»։ Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 59 (3): 441–462։ ISSN 0022-5045։ PMID 15270337։ doi:10.1093/jhmas/jrh091 
  23. Pringle Peter (2012)։ Experiment Eleven: Dark Secrets Behind the Discovery of a Wonder Drug։ New York: Walker & Company։ ISBN 978-1620401989 
  24. Schatz, Albert; Bugle, Elizabeth; Waksman, Selman A. (1944), «Streptomycin, a substance exhibiting antibiotic activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria», Experimental Biology and Medicine 55: 66–69, doi:10.3181/00379727-55-14461. 
  25. 25,0 25,1 25,2 Ryan Frank (1993)։ The forgotten plague: how the battle against tuberculosis was won—and lost։ Boston: Little, Brown։ ISBN 978-0316763806 
  26. Cramer, Richard Ben, What It Takes (New York, 1992), pp. 110-11.
  27. 27,0 27,1 «A change in scientific approach: from alternation to randomised allocation in clinical trials in the 1940s»։ BMJ 319 (7209): 572–3։ August 1999։ PMC 1116443։ PMID 10463905։ doi:10.1136/bmj.319.7209.572 
  28. Metcalfe NH (February 2011)։ «Sir Geoffrey Marshall (1887-1982): respiratory physician, catalyst for anaesthesia development, doctor to both Prime Minister and King, and World War I Barge Commander»։ J Med Biogr 19 (1): 10–4։ PMID 21350072։ doi:10.1258/jmb.2010.010019 
  29. «New Jersey S3190 | 2016-2017 | Regular Session»։ LegiScan (անգլերեն)։ Վերցված է November 29, 2017 
  30. «New Jersey A4900 | 2016-2017 | Regular Session»։ LegiScan (անգլերեն)։ Վերցված է November 29, 2017 

Further reading[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Կաղապար:Antidiarrheals, intestinal anti-inflammatory/anti-infective agents Կաղապար:AminoglycosideAntiBiotics