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Կաղապար:Infobox scientist

Paul Ekman (born February 15, 1934) is an American psychologist and professor emeritus at the University of California, San Francisco who is a pioneer in the study of emotions and their relation to facial expressions. He has created an "atlas of emotions" with more than ten thousand facial expressions, and has gained a reputation as the best human lie detector in the world. He was ranked 59th out of the 100 most cited psychologists of the twentieth century.[1] Ekman conducted seminal research on the specific biological correlations of specific emotions, attempting to demonstrate the universality and discreteness of emotions in a Darwinian approach.[2][3]

Biography[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Արտաքին տեսաֆայլեր
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Conversations with History: Paul Ekman ՅուԹյուբում, University of California Television, 58:00, April 2008


Childhood[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Paul Ekman was born in 1934 in Washington, D.C., and grew up in a Jewish family[4] in New Jersey, Washington, Oregon, and California. His father was a pediatrician and his mother was an attorney. His sister, Joyce Steingart, is a psychoanalytic psychologist who before her retirement practiced in New York City.[3]

Ekman originally wanted to be a psychotherapist, but when he was drafted into the army in 1958 he found that research could change army routines, making them more humane. This experience converted him from wanting to be a psychotherapist to wanting to be a researcher, in order to help as many people as possible.[5]

Education[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

At the age of 15, without graduating from high school, Paul Ekman enrolled at the University of Chicago where he completed three years of undergraduate study. During his time in Chicago he was fascinated by group therapy sessions and understanding group dynamics. Notably, his classmates at Chicago included writer Susan Sontag, film director Mike Nichols, and actress Elaine May.[6]

He then studied two years at New York University (NYU), earning his BA in 1954.[3] The subject of his first research project, under the direction of his NYU professor, Margaret Tresselt, was an attempt to develop a test of how people would respond to group therapy.[7]

Next, Ekman was accepted into the Adelphi University graduate program for clinical psychology.[7] While working for his master's degree, Ekman was awarded a predoctoral research fellowship from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) in 1955.[7] His Master's thesis was focused on facial expression and body movement he had begun to study in 1954.[7] Ekman eventually went on to receive his Ph.D. in clinical psychology at Adelphi University in 1958, after a one-year internship at the Langley Porter Neuropsychiatric Institute.[7][8]

Military service[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Ekman was drafted into the U.S. Army in 1958 to serve 2 years as soon as his internship at Langley Porter was finished.[7] He served as first lieutenant-chief psychologist, at Fort Dix, New Jersey, where he did research on army stockades and psychological changes during infantry basic training.[7][9][10][11]

Career[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Upon completion of military service in 1960, he accepted a position as a research associate with Leonard Krasner at the Palo Alto Veterans Administration Hospital, working on a grant focused on the operant conditioning of verbal behavior in psychiatric patients. Ekman also met anthropologist Gregory Bateson in 1960 who was on the staff of the Palo Alto Veterans Administration Hospital. Five years later, Gregory Bateson gave Paul Ekman motion picture films taken in Bali in the mid-1930s to help Ekman with cross-cultural studies of expression and gesture.[7]

From 1960 to 1963, Ekman was supported by a post doctoral fellowship from NIMH. He submitted his first research grant through San Francisco State College with himself as the principal investigator (PI) at the young age of 29.[12] He received this grant from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) in 1963 to study nonverbal behaviour. This award would be continuously renewed for the next 40 years and would pay his salary until he was offered a professorship at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) in 1972.

Encouraged by his college friend and teacher Silvan S. Tomkins, Ekman shifted his focus from body movement to facial expressions. He wrote his most famous book, Telling Lies, and published it in 1985. The 4th edition is still in print. He retired in 2004 as professor of psychology in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). From 1960 to 2004 he also worked at the Langley Porter Psychiatric Institute on a limited basis consulting on various clinical cases.

After retiring from the University of California, San Francisco, Paul Ekman founded the Paul Ekman Group (PEG) and Paul Ekman International.[13]

Media[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

In 2001, Ekman collaborated with John Cleese for the BBC documentary series The Human Face.[14]

His work is frequently referred to in the TV series Lie to Me.[15] Dr. Lightman is based on Paul Ekman, and Ekman served as a scientific adviser for the series; he read and edited the scripts and sent video clip-notes of facial expressions for the actors to imitate. While Ekman has written 15 books, the series Lie to Me has more effectively brought Ekman's research into people's homes.[15]

He has also collaborated with Pixar's film director and animator Pete Docter in preparation of his 2015 film Inside Out.[16] Ekman also wrote a parent's guide to using Inside Out to help parents talk with their children about emotion, which can be found on his personal website.

Influence[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

He was named one of the top Time 100 most influential people in the May 11, 2009 edition of Time magazine.[17] He was also ranked fifteenth among the most influential psychologists of the 21st century in 2014 by the journal Archives of Scientific Psychology.[18] He is currently on the Editorial Board of Greater Good magazine, published by the Greater Good Science Center of the University of California, Berkeley. His contributions include the interpretation of scientific research into the roots of compassion, altruism, and peaceful human relationships.

Research work[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Measuring nonverbal communication[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Ekman's interest in nonverbal communication led to his first publication in 1957, describing how difficult it was to develop ways of empirically measuring nonverbal behaviour.[19] He chose the Langley Porter Neuropsychiatric Institute, the psychiatry department of the University of California Medical School, for his clinical internship partly because Jurgen Ruesch and Weldon Kees had recently published a book called Nonverbal Communication (1956).[7][20][21]

Ekman then focused on developing techniques for measuring nonverbal communication. He found that facial muscular movements that created facial expressions could be reliably identified through empirical research. He also found that human beings are capable of making over 10,000 facial expressions; only 3,000 relevant to emotion.[22] Psychologist Silvan Tomkins convinced Ekman to extend his studies of nonverbal communication from body movement to the face, helping him design his classic cross-cultural emotion recognition studies.[23]

Emotions as universal categories[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

In The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals published in 1872, Charles Darwin theorized that emotions were evolved traits universal to the human species. However, the prevalent belief during the 1950s, particularly among anthropologists, was that facial expressions and their meanings were determined through behavioural learning processes. A prominent advocate of the latter perspective was the anthropologist Margaret Mead who had travelled to different countries examining how cultures communicated using nonverbal behaviour.

Through a series of studies, Ekman found a high agreement across members of diverse Western and Eastern literate cultures on selecting emotional labels that fit facial expressions. Expressions he found to be universal included those indicating wrath, grossness, scaredness, joy, loneliness, and shock. Findings on contempt were less clear, though there is at least some preliminary evidence that this emotion and its expression are universally recognized.[24] Working with Wallace V. Friesen, Ekman demonstrated that the findings extended to preliterate Fore tribesmen in Papua New Guinea, whose members could not have learned the meaning of expressions from exposure to media depictions of emotion.[25] Ekman and Friesen then demonstrated that certain emotions were exhibited with very specific display rules, culture-specific prescriptions about who can show which emotions to whom and when. These display rules could explain how cultural differences may conceal the universal effect of expression.[26]

In the 1990s, Ekman proposed an expanded list of basic emotions, including a range of positive and negative emotions that are not all encoded in facial muscles.[27] The newly included emotions are: Amusement, Contempt, Contentment, Embarrassment, Excitement, Guilt, Pride in achievement, Relief, Satisfaction, Sensory pleasure, and Shame.[27]

Visual depictions of facial actions for studying emotion[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Ekman's famous test of emotion recognition was the Pictures of Facial Affect (POFA) stimulus set published in 1976. Consisting of 110 black and white images of Caucasian actors portraying the six universal emotions plus neutral expressions, the POFA has been used to study emotion recognition rates in normal and psychiatric populations around the world. Ekman used these stimuli in his original cross-cultural research. Many researchers favor the POFA because these photographs have been rated by large normative groups in different cultures. In response to critics, however, Ekman eventually released a more culturally diverse set of stimuli called the Japanese and Caucasian Facial Expressions of Emotion (JACFEE).[28]

By 1978, Ekman and Friesen had finalized and developed the Facial Action Coding System. FACS is an anatomically based system for describing all observable facial movement for every emotion. Each observable component of facial movement is called an action unit or AU and all facial expressions can be decomposed into their constituent core AUs.[29] An update of this tool came in the early 2000s.

Other tools have been developed, including the MicroExpressions Training Tool (METT), which can help individuals identify more subtle emotional expressions that occur when people try to suppress their emotions. Application of this tool includes helping people with Asperger's or autism to recognize emotional expressions in their everyday interactions. The Subtle Expression Training Tool (SETT) teaches recognition of very small, micro signs of emotion. These are very tiny expressions, sometimes registering in only part of the face, or when the expression is shown across the entire face, but is very small. Subtle expressions occur for many reasons, for example, the emotion experienced may be very slight or the emotion may be just beginning. METT and SETT have been shown to increase accuracy in evaluating truthfulness[փա՞ստ].

Paul Ekman International was established in 2010 by www.eiagroup.com based on a partnership between Cliff Lansley and Paul Ekman to deliver emotional skills and deception detection workshops around the world, based on Dr Ekman's 50 years of research.

Detecting deception[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Ekman has contributed to the study of social aspects of lying, and why we lie [30] and why we are often unconcerned with detecting lies.[31] He first became interested in detecting lies while completing his clinical work. As detailed in Ekman's Telling Lies, a patient he was involved in treating denied that she was suicidal in order to leave the hospital. Ekman began to review videotaped interviews to study people's facial expressions while lying. In a research project along with Maureen O'Sullivan, called the Wizards Project (previously named the Diogenes Project), Ekman reported on facial "microexpressions" which could be used to assist in lie detection. After testing a total of 20,000 people[32] from all walks of life, he found only 50 people who had the ability to spot deception without any formal training. These naturals are also known as "Truth Wizards", or wizards of deception detection from demeanor.[33]

In his profession, he also uses oral signs of lying. When interviewed about the Monica Lewinsky scandal, he mentioned that he could detect that former President Bill Clinton was lying because he used distancing language.[34]

Contributions[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

In his 1993 paper in the psychology journal American Psychologist, Ekman describes nine direct contributions that his research on facial expression has made to the understanding of emotion.[35] Highlights include:

  • Consideration of both nature and nurture: Emotion is now viewed as a physiological phenomenon influenced by our cultural and learning experiences.
  • Emotion-specific physiology: Ekman led the way by trying to find discrete psychophysiological differences across emotions. A number of researchers continue to search for emotion-specific autonomic and central nervous system activations. With the advent of neuroimaging techniques, a topic of intense interest revolves around how specific emotions relate to physiological activations in certain brain areas. Ekman laid the groundwork for the future field of affective neuroscience.
  • An examination of events that precede emotions: Ekman's finding that voluntarily making one of the universal facial expressions can generate the physiology and some of the subjective experience of emotion provided some difficulty for some of the earlier theoretical conceptualizations of experiencing emotions.
  • Considering emotions as families: Ekman & Friesen (1978) found not one expression for each emotion, but a variety of related but visually different expressions. For example, the authors reported 60 variations of the anger expression which share core configurational properties and distinguish themselves clearly from the families of fearful expressions, disgust expressions, and so on. Variations within a family likely reflect the intensity of the emotion, how the emotion is controlled, whether it is simulated or spontaneous, and the specifics of the event that provoked the emotion.

Criticisms[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

MostԿաղապար:Who credibility-assessment researchers agree that untrained people are unable to visually detect lies.[36] The application of part of Ekman's work to airport security via the Transportation Security Administration's "Screening Passengers by Observation Techniques" (SPOT) program has been criticized for not having been put through controlled scientific tests.[36] A 2007 report on SPOT referring to untrained people stated that "simply put, people (including professional lie-catchers with extensive experience of assessing veracity) would achieve similar hit rates if they flipped a coin".[37] Since controlled scientific tests typically involve people playing the part of terrorists, Ekman says those people are unlikely to have the same emotions as actual terrorists.[36]

A more recent report from the Department of Homeland Security DHS Report 2015 confirms that "there is a significant body of scientific evidence and operational literature that supports the use of behavior detection indicators to identify high-risk passengers. TSA has compiled over 189 documents that include scientific research studies and exemplars from operational events that illustrate the reasoning for the use of the indicators in identifying terrorists who are an imminent threat."

Field research by the EIA Group has documented empirical evidence of the impact of behavioral analysis in high-stake airport environments.

The methodology used by Ekman and O'Sullivan in their recent work on Truth wizards has also received criticism on the basis of validation.[38]

Other criticisms of Ekman's work are based on experimental and naturalistic studies by several other emotion psychologists that did not find evidence in support of Ekman's proposed taxonomy of discrete emotions and discrete facial expression.[39]

Methodological criticisms of Ekman's work focus on the essentially circular and tautological nature of his experiments, in which test subjects were shown selected photographs of "basic emotions," and then asked to match them with the same set of concepts used in their production. Ekman showed photographs selected from over 3000 pictures of individuals asked to simulate emotions, from which he edited to contain "those which showed only the pure display of a single affect," using no control and subject only to Ekman's intuition.[40] If Ekman felt a photograph did not show the correct 'pure' emotion, he excluded it.[41]

Ekman received hostility from some anthropologists at meetings of the American Psychological Association and the American Anthropological Association from 1967 to 1969. He recounted that, as he was reporting his findings on universality of expression, one anthropologist tried to stop him from finishing by shouting that his ideas were fascist. He compares this to another incident when he was accused of being racist by an activist for claiming that Black expressions are not different from White expressions. In 1975, Margaret Mead, an anthropologist, wrote against Ekman for doing "improper anthropology", and for disagreeing with Ray Birdwhistell's claim opposing universality. Ekman wrote that, while many people agreed with Birdwhistell then, most came to accept his own findings over the next decade.[12] However, some anthropologists continued to suggest that emotions are not universal.[42] Ekman argued that there has been no quantitative data to support the claim that emotions are culture specific. In his 1993 discussion of the topic, Ekman states that there is no instance in which 70% or more of one cultural group select one of the six universal emotions while another culture group labels the same expression as another universal emotion.[35]

Ekman criticized the tendency of psychologists to base their conclusions on surveys of college students. Hank Campbell quotes Ekman saying at the Being Human conference, "We basically have a science of undergraduates."[43] Ekman's own studies have used freshman college students as the subject group, comparing their results with those of illiterate subjects from New Guinea.[44]

Ekman has refused to submit his more recent work to peer-review, claiming that revealing the details of his work might reveal state secrets and endanger security.[45] Critics assert that this is instead an attempt to shield his work from methodological criticisms within experimental psychology, even as his public and popular visibility has grown.[46]

Publications[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

  • Nonverbal messages: Cracking the Code 978-0-9915636-3-0
  • Emotional Awareness: Overcoming the Obstacles to Psychological Balance and Compassion (Times Books, 2008) 0-8050-8712-5
  • Unmasking the Face 1-883536-36-7
  • Emotions Revealed: Recognizing Faces and Feelings to Improve Communication and Emotional Life (Times Books, 2003) 0-8050-7516-X
  • Telling Lies: Clues to Deceit in the Marketplace, Politics, and Marriage (W. W. Norton & Company, 1985) 0-393-32188-6
  • What the Face Reveals (with Rosenberg, E. L., Oxford University Press, 1998) 0-19-510446-3
  • The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions (with R. Davidson, Oxford University Press, 1994) 0-19-508944-8
  • Darwin and Facial Expression: A Century of Research in Review 0-12-236750-2
  • Facial Action Coding System/Investigator's 99936-26-61-9
  • Why Kids Lie: How Parents Can Encourage Truthfulness (Penguin, 1991) 0-14-014322-X
  • Handbook of Methods in Nonverbal Behavior Research 0-521-28072-9
  • Face of Man 0-8240-7130-1
  • Emotion in the Human Face 0-08-016643-1
  • Handbook of Cognition and Emotion (Sussex, UK John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 1999)

See also[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

References[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

  1. Haggbloom, S. J. et al. (2002). The 100 Most Eminent Psychologists of the 20th Century. Review of General Psychology. Vol. 6, No. 2, 139–15. Haggbloom and his team combined 3 quantitative variables: citations in professional journals, citations in textbooks, and nominations in a survey given to members of the Association for Psychological Science, with 3 qualitative variables (converted to quantitative scores): National Academy of Science (NAS) membership, American Psychological Association (APA) President and/or recipient of the APA Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award, and surname used as an eponym. Then the list was rank ordered. Ekman was #59.
  2. "Facial expression of emotion". In V.S. Ramachandran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Human Behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 173–83). Oxford: Elsevier/Academic Press. 978-008-088-575-9.
  3. 3,0 3,1 3,2 No Authorship Indicated (April 1992)։ «Paul Ekman»։ American Psychologist 47 (4): 470–71։ doi:10.1037/0003-066x.47.4.470 
  4. «Jews Among the 100 Most Eminent Psychologists of the Twentieth Century»։ www.jinfo.org։ Վերցված է 2019-05-31 
  5. http://search.proquest.com/docview/229138171
  6. «Conversation with Paul Ekman, p. 1 of 5»։ Globetrotter.berkeley.edu։ 2004-03-11։ Վերցված է 2014-03-03 
  7. 7,0 7,1 7,2 7,3 7,4 7,5 7,6 7,7 7,8 Ekman, P. (1987). "A life's pursuit." In The Semiotic Web '86: An International Yearkbook, Sebeok, T. A.; Umiker-Seboek, J., Eds. Berlin, Mouton De Gruyter, pp. 3–45.
  8. Eissner, B. Paul Ekman PH.D. '58, '08: East Meets West. http://profiles.adelphi.edu/profile/paul-ekman/ http://www.adelphi.edu/adelphi-magazine/Adelphi-Magazine-Fall-2008.pdf.
  9. American Psychologist (April 1992), "Paul Ekman" 47 (4), pp. 470–71
  10. Ekman P., Cohen L., Moos R., Raine W., Schlesinger M., Stone G. (1963)։ «Divergent Reactions to the Threat of War»։ Science 139 (3550): 88–94։ PMID 17798702։ doi:10.1126/science.139.3550.88 
  11. Ekman, P.; Friesen, W.V.; Lutzker, D.R., "Psychological Reactions to Infantry Basic Training". Medicine, U. o. C. S. o., Ed. http://www.paulekman.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Psychological-Reactions-To-Infantry-Basic-Training.pdf
  12. 12,0 12,1 Ekman, P. (1987). '"A life's pursuit". In The Semiotic Web '86: An International Yearkbook, Sebeok, T. A.; Umiker-Seboek, J., Eds. Berlin, Mouton De Gruyter, pp. 3–45
  13. «About Paul Ekman Group LLC»։ Paulekman.com։ Վերցված է 2014-03-03 
  14. «Lifeboat Foundation Bios: Dr. Paul Ekman»։ Lifeboat.com։ 2002-09-16։ Արխիվացված է օրիգինալից 2014-01-05-ին։ Վերցված է 2014-03-03 
  15. 15,0 15,1 "The (Real!) Science Behind Fox's Lie to Me". Popular Mechanics [Online], 2009.
  16. Dacher Keltner & Paul Ekman (2015-07-03)։ «The Science of 'Inside Out'»։ The New York Times։ Վերցված է 2015-09-05 
  17. The 2009 TIME 100: Paul Ekman, Scientists & Thinkers. Time. April 30, 2009.
  18. An Incomplete List of Eminent Psychologists of the Modern Era American Psychological Association, 2014.
  19. Ekman Paul (1957)։ «A methodological discussion of nonverbal behavior»։ Journal of Psychology 43: 141–49։ doi:10.1080/00223980.1957.9713059 
  20. Jurgen Ruesch, Weldon Kees (1969)։ Nonverbal Communication: Notes on the Visual Perception of Human Relations։ Վերցված է 2014-03-03 – via Books.google.com 
  21. Ruesch, J.; Kees, W. (1956). Nonverbal Communication: Notes on the Visual Perception of Human Relations. University of California Press, Berkeley, p. 205.
  22. «Watch Lie To Me: Expressions: Introduction online»։ Hulu։ Վերցված է 2014-03-03 
  23. «FACS Investigators Guide – Acknowledgements»։ Արխիվացված է օրիգինալից 6 October 2009-ին։ Վերցված է 2 September 2009 
  24. Matsumoto, David (1992) "More evidence for the universality of a contempt expression". Motivation and Emotion. Springer Netherlands. Volume 16, Number 4 / December, 1992
  25. Ekman P., Friesen, W.V. (1971)։ «Constants across cultures in the face and emotion.»։ Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 17 (2): 124–29։ PMID 5542557։ doi:10.1037/h0030377։ Արխիվացված է օրիգինալից 2015-02-28-ին։ Վերցված է 2015-02-28 
  26. Ekman Paul (1989)։ «The argument and evidence about universals in facial expressions of emotion»։ in H. Wagner & A Manstead։ Handbook of social psychophysiology։ Chichester, England: Wiley։ էջեր 143–64 
  27. 27,0 27,1 Ekman, Paul (1999), «Basic Emotions», in Dalgleish, T; Power, M, Handbook of Cognition and Emotion, Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, http://www.paulekman.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Basic-Emotions.pdf 
  28. Ekman P., Matsumoto, D.։ «Japanese and Caucasian facial expressions of emotion and neutral faces.» 
  29. Ekman Paul։ «FACS vs. F.A.C.E.» 
  30. Ekman, P., 1991: Why Kids Lie: How Parents Can Encourage Truthfulness
  31. Ekman, P., 1996: Why don't we catch liars Archived 2010-01-08 at the Wayback Machine.
  32. Camilleri, J., "Truth Wizard knows when you've been lying", Chicago Sun-Times, January 21, 2009
  33. «NPR: The Face Never Lies»։ Արխիվացված է օրիգինալից 2009-06-07-ին 
  34. "The lie detective: San Francisco psychologist has made a science of reading facial expressions" by Julian Guthrie, San Francisco Chronicle, September 16, 2002.
  35. 35,0 35,1 Ekman Paul (1993)։ «Facial Expression and Emotion»։ American Psychologist 48 (4): 384–92։ PMID 8512154։ doi:10.1037/0003-066X.48.4.384 
  36. 36,0 36,1 36,2 Sharon Weinberger (2010)։ «Airport security: Intent to deceive? : Nature News»։ Nature (Nature.com) 465 (7297): 412–415։ PMID 20505706։ doi:10.1038/465412a 
  37. Hontz, C.R., Hartwig, M., Kleinman, S.M. & Meissner, C.A. "Credibility Assessment at Portals", Portals Committee Report (2009).
  38. Bond, Charles F & Uysal, Ahmet. (2007). "On lie detection 'wizards'". Law and human behavior, 31.
  39. Russel and Fernandez-Dols (1997). The Psychology of Facial Expression. Cambridge University Press. 0521587964. Pages 400
  40. Paul Ekman, E. Richard Sorenson, and Wallace V. Friesen, "Pan-Cultural Elements in Facial Displays of Emotion," Science, 164/3875 (1969), 86–8, here 87
  41. Jan Plamper. The history of Emotions: An Introduction (Oxford, 2012), 153.
  42. Lutz C., White, G.M. (1986)։ «The anthropology of emotions.»։ Annual Review of Anthropology 15: 405–36։ doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.15.1.405 
  43. Hank Campbell (16 April 2012)։ «A Double-Blind Test Of Astrology For The 21st Century»։ Science20.com։ «...as the legendary Paul Ekman said at the Being Human conference, 'We basically have a science of undergraduates'» 
  44. Paul Ekman, E. Richard Sorenson, and Wallace V. Friesen, ‘Pan-Cultural Elements in Facial Displays of Emotion’, Science, 164/3875(1969), 87
  45. Weinberger, S. Airport security: Intent to deceive?. Nature 465, 412–415 (2010) https://www.nature.com/articles/465412a
  46. Jan Plamper. The history of Emotions: An Introduction (Oxford, 2012), 162.

External links[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Կաղապար:Evolutionary psychology Կաղապար:Psychology


References[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]


External links[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Կոորդինատներ: 52°30′40″ հս․ լ. 13°25′00″ ավ. ե. / 52.51111° հս․. լ. 13.41667° ավ. ե. / 52.51111; 13.41667


Age-standardised disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rates of unipolar depressive disorders by country (per 100,000 inhabitants) in 2004.[1]

Դեպրեսիայի համաճարակաբանությունն ամբողջ աշխարհում ուսումնասիրվել է: Ինչպես ցույց է տվել համաճարակաբանությունը՝ ամբողջ աշխարհում դեպրեսիան ճնշված լինելու հիմնական պատճառն է[2]: Կյանքի ընթացքում դրա տարածվածությունը լայնորեն տարբերվում է՝ սկսած Ճապոնիայի 3%-ից մինչև Միացյալ Նահանգների 17%-ը: Համաճարակաբանական տվյալները ցույց են տալիս, որ Մերձավոր Արևելքում, Հյուսիսային Աֆրիկայում, Հարավային Ասիայում և Ամերիկայում դեպրեսիան ունի ավելի լայն տարածում, քան այլ երկրներում[3]: Ըստ տասը երկրում կատարված ուսումնասիրությունների՝ մարդկանց թիվը, որոնք իրենց ողջ կյանքի ընթացքում կարող են տառապել դեպրեսիայից, կամզում է 8–12 տոկոս[4][5]:

Հյուսիսային Ամերիկայում մեծ դեպրեսիվ շեղում ունենալու հավականությունը ցանկացած տարվա ընթացքում տղամարդկանց մոտ 3–5% է, իսկ կականց մոտ՝8–10%[6][7]:

Ժողովրդագրական դինամիկա[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Բնակչության վերաբերյալ ուսումնասիրությունները համապատասխանաբար ցույց են տվել, որ մեծ դեպրեսիան երկու անգամ ավելի շատ է տարածված կանանց մոտ, քան տղամարդկանց մոտ, չնայած դրա պատճառը դեռ պարզ չէ[8]: Հաճախականության նման աճը ոչ թե կապված է խրոնիկ աճի հետ, այլ՝ սեռական հասունացման հետ, որը երևան է գալիս 15-ից 18 տարեկաններում և ավելի շատ հայտնվում է հոգեսոցիալական գործոններով, քան, օրինակ, հորմոնալ գործոններով[8]:

Մարդիկ սովորաբար իրենց առաջին դեպրեսիվ շեղումն ունենում են 30-ից 40 տարեկանում: Գոյություն ունի նաև երկրորդ՝ ավելի փոքր շեղումը 50-ից 60 տարեկանում[9]: Մեծ դեպրեսիա ունենալու ռիսկը մեծանում է նյարդաբանական պայմաններով՝ ինսուլտի, Պարկինսոնի հիվանդության կամ ցրված սկլերոզի ունենալու դեպքում: Մեծ է ռիսկը նաև հետծննդաբերական շրջանի առաջին տարվա ընթացքում[10]: Խորը դեպրեսիայի ռիսկը կապված է նաև շրջակա միջավայրի սթրեսների հետ, որոնց բախվում են բնակչության որոշ խմբերը, օրինակ՝ պատերազմի զինվորները կամ պրակտիկայում գտնվող բժիշկները[11][12]:

Այն նաև տարածված է սրտանոթային հիվանդություններ ունեցող մարկդանց շրջանում[13][14]: Ուսումնասիրությունները հակասում են այն մտքին, որ տարեցների մոտ դեպրեսիան լայն տարածում ունի, և միևնույն ժամանակ տվյալների մեծ մասը ցույց է տալիս, որ այդ տարիքային խմբում դեպրեսիա ունենալու ռիսկը նվազում է[15]: Դեպրեսիվ խանգարումներն ավելի տարածված են քաղաքային բնակավայրերում, քան գյուղական բնակավայրերում, և, ընդհանուր առմամաբ, այն ավելի տարածված է ոչ բարենպաստ սոցիալ-տնտեսական գործոններով խմբերում (օրինակ՝ անօրթևան մարդիկ)[16]:

Տարբեր էթնիկ խմբերի միջև մեծ դեպրեսիայի հարաբերական տարածվածության վերաբերյալ տվյալները հստակ կոնսենսիուսի չեն եկել: Այնուամենայնիվ, միակ հայտնի ուսումնասիրությունը էնթիկ խմբերի վերաբերյալ փաստում է, որ մեծ դեպրեսիայով հակված են տառապել ավելի շատ աֆրո- և մեքսիկ ամերիկացիները, քան եվրոամերիկացիները[17]:

Կանխատեսումները ցույց են տալիս, որ մինչև 2020 թվականը դեպրեսիան կարող է լինել սրտի հիվանդությունից հետո երկրորդ գլխավոր պատճառը, որի արդյունքում մարդը կարող է կյանքից հեռանալ[18]:

2016 թվականին կատարված ուսումնասիրությունները գտել են հակաբեղմնավորման միջոցների օգտագործման և դեպրեսիայի մեջ կապ[19]

By country[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Age-standardised disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rates per 100,000 inhabitants[20] Կաղապար:Major Depressive DALY Rates

See also[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

References[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

  1. «The scope and concerns of public health»։ Oxford University Press: OUP.COM։ March 5, 2009։ Արխիվացված է օրիգինալից June 4, 2013-ին։ Վերցված է December 3, 2010 
  2. World Health Organization. The world health report 2001 – Mental Health: New Understanding, New Hope; 2001 [Retrieved 2008-10-19].
  3. Burden of Depressive Disorders by Country, Sex, Age, and Year: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010, Alize J. Ferrari, Fiona J. Charlson, Rosana E. Norman, Scott B. Patten, Greg Freedman, Christopher J.L. Murray, Theo Vos, Harvey A. Whiteford, Published: November 5, 2013 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001547
  4. Andrade L, Caraveo-A.. [1]. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 24 March 2006;12(1):3–21. doi:10.1002/mpr.138. PMID 12830306.(չաշխատող հղում)
  5. Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O. The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). JAMA. 2003;289(203):3095–105. doi:10.1001/jama.289.23.3095. PMID 12813115.
  6. Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2005;62(6):593–602. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.593. PMID 15939837.
  7. Murphy JM, Laird NM, Monson RR, Sobol AM, Leighton AH. A 40-year perspective on the prevalence of depression: The Stirling County Study. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2000;57(3):209–15. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.57.3.209. PMID 10711905.
  8. 8,0 8,1 Gender differences in unipolar depression: An update of epidemiological findings and possible explanations. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2003;108(3):163–74. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0447.2003.00204.x. PMID 12890270.
  9. Eaton WW, Anthony JC, Gallo J. Natural history of diagnostic interview schedule/DSM-IV major depression. The Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area follow-up. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1997;54(11):993–99. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1997.01830230023003. PMID 9366655.
  10. Rickards H. Depression in neurological disorders: Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 2005;76:i48–i52. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2004.060426. PMID 15718222. PMC 1765679.
  11. Rotenstein Lisa S., Ramos Marco A., Torre Matthew, Segal J. Bradley, Peluso Michael J., Guille Constance, Sen Srijan, Mata Douglas A. (2016-12-06)։ «Prevalence of Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Ideation Among Medical Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis»։ JAMA 316 (21): 2214–2236։ ISSN 1538-3598։ PMC 5613659 ։ PMID 27923088։ doi:10.1001/jama.2016.17324 
  12. Douglas A. Mata, Marco A. Ramos, Narinder Bansal, Rida Khan, Constance Guille, Emanuele Di Angelantonio & Srijan Sen (2015)։ «Prevalence of Depression and Depressive Symptoms Among Resident Physicians: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis»։ JAMA 314 (22): 2373–2383։ PMC 4866499։ PMID 26647259։ doi:10.1001/jama.2015.15845 
  13. Alboni P, Favaron E, Paparella N, Sciammarella M, Pedaci M. Is there an association between depression and cardiovascular mortality or sudden death?. Journal of cardiovascular medicine (Hagerstown, Md.). 2008;9(4):356–62. doi:10.2459/JCM.0b013e3282785240. PMID 18334889.
  14. Strik JJ, Honig A, Maes M. Depression and myocardial infarction: relationship between heart and mind. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry. 2001;25(4):879–92. doi:10.1016/S0278-5846(01)00150-6. PMID 11383983.
  15. Jorm AF. Does old age reduce the risk of anxiety and depression? A review of epidemiological studies across the adult life span. Psychological Medicine. 2000;30(1):11–22. doi:10.1017/S0033291799001452. PMID 10722172.
  16. Psychiatry, 4th edition - Oxford University Press, 2012 by By John Geddes, Jonathan Price, Rebecca McKnight page 222
  17. Stephanie A. Riolo (June 2005)։ «Prevalence of Depression by Race/Ethnicity: Findings From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III»։ American Journal of Public Health (U.S. National Library of Medicine) 95 (6): 998–1000։ PMC 1449298։ PMID 15914823։ doi:10.2105/AJPH.2004.047225 
  18. Lopez A. D., Murray C. C. (1998-11-01)։ «The global burden of disease, 1990-2020»։ Nature Medicine 4 (11): 1241–1243։ ISSN 1078-8956։ PMID 9809543։ doi:10.1038/3218 
  19. Wessel Skovlund Charlotte (September 28, 2016)։ «Association of Hormonal Contraception With Depression»։ JAMA Psychiatry 73: 1154։ doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.2387։ Վերցված է October 7, 2016 
  20. World Health Organization (WHO). Age-standardized DALYs per 100,000 by cause, and Member State, 2004; 2004 [Retrieved 2011-03-31].

External links[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Կաղապար:Global epidemiology