Նոբելյան մրցանակի անկրոնական դափնեկիրների ցանկ

Վիքիպեդիայից՝ ազատ հանրագիտարանից
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1901-2000 թվականներին Նոբելյան մրցանակ ստացած ազատամտականների, ագնոստիկներ և աթեիստների բաշխումը։[1]

Կյանքի որևէ հատվածում իրենց աթեիստ, ագնոստիկ, ազատամտական կամ այլ անկրոնական համարող Նոբելյան մրցանակի դափնեկիրների ցանկ[2]։ Այս դափնեկիրներից շատերը ավելի երիտասարդ տարիքում իրենց համարել են կրոնական։ Գնահատումներից մեկի համաձայն՝ 1901-2000 թվականներին բոլոր դափնեկիրների 10.5%-ը և գրականության մրցանակի դափնեկիրների 35%-ը այս կատեգորիայում են[3]։ Նույն գնահատման համաձայն՝ 1901-2000 թվականներին անկրոնականները ստացել են բժշկության կամ ֆիզիոլոգիայի մրցանակների 8.9%, քիմիայի՝ 7.1%, տնտեսագիտության՝ 5.2%, ֆիզիկայի՝ 4.7% և խաղաղության 3.6%-ը[3]։ Ալֆրեդ Նոբելը նույնպես աթեիստ էր[4]։

Քիմիա[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Հարի Կրոտո

Տնտեսագիտություն[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Գրականություն[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Խաղաղություն[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Ֆիզիկա[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Բժշկություն և ֆիզիոլոգիա[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Ծանոթագրություններ[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

  1. Shalev 2003, էջ. 59
  2. 2,00 2,01 2,02 2,03 2,04 2,05 2,06 2,07 2,08 2,09 2,10 2,11 2,12 2,13 2,14 2,15 2,16 2,17 2,18 2,19 2,20 Kimball John (2015)։ Physics Curiosities, Oddities, and Novelties։ CRC Press։ էջ 323։ ISBN 978-1-4665-7636-0 
  3. 3,0 3,1 Shalev Baruch Aba (2003)։ «Religion of Nobel prize winners»։ 100 years of Nobel prizes։ New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors։ էջեր 57–59։ ISBN 9788126902781 
  4. Evlanoff Michael, Fluor Marjorie (1969)։ Alfred Nobel: The Loneliest Millionaire։ W. Ritchie Press։ էջ 88 
  5. Stein Gordon, ed. (1985)։ The Encyclopedia of unbelief 1 (Nachdr. ed.)։ Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books։ էջ 594։ ISBN 978-0-87975-307-8։ «Svante Arrhenius (I859-I927), recipient of the Nobel Prize in chemistry (I903), was a declared atheist...» 
  6. Boyer, Paul D. (March 2004), «A Path to Atheism», Freethought Today (Freedom From Religion Foundation) 21 (2), արխիվացված օրիգինալից June 3, 2011-ին, https://web.archive.org/web/20110603071651/http://ffrf.org/legacy/fttoday/2004/march/?ft=boyer, վերցված է March 16, 2010. 
  7. Kroto Harold (2015)։ «Sir John Cornforth (‘Kappa’): Some Personal Recollections»։ Australian Journal of Chemistry 68 (4): 697–698։ doi:10.1071/CH14601 
  8. Perrin Francis (2008)։ «Joliot, Frédéric»։ Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography 7։ Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons։ էջ 151։ «Raised in a completely nonreligious family, Joliot never attended any church and was a thoroughgoing atheist all his life.» 
  9. Perrin Francis (2008)։ «Joliot-Curie, Irène»։ Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography 7։ Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons։ էջ 157։ Վերցված է հոկտեմբերի 16, 2015։ «It was to her grandfather, a convinced freethinker, that Irène owed her atheism, later politically expressed as anticlericalism.» 
  10. 10,0 10,1 10,2 JPararajasingham։ «50 Renowned Academics Speaking About God (Part I)»։ YouTube։ Վերցված է փետրվարի 16, 2016 
  11. «Herbert Hauptman»։ The Telegraph։ 27 Oct 2011։ Վերցված է հոկտեմբերի 15, 2015։ «Outside the field of scientific research, he was known for his outspoken atheism: belief in God, he once declared, is not only incompatible with good science, but is "damaging to the wellbeing of the human race."» 
  12. Cardellini Liberato (October 2007)։ «Looking for Connections: An Interview with Roald Hoffmann» (pdf)։ Journal of Chemical Education 84 (10): 1631–1635։ doi:10.1021/ed084p1631։ Վերցված է հոկտեմբերի 15, 2015։ «atheist who is moved by religion.» 
  13. Harold W. Kroto (1996)։ «Harold Kroto – Autobiography»։ Nobelprize.org, The Official Web Site of the Նոբելյան մրցանակ։ Վերցված է մարտի 24, 2012։ «I am a devout atheist – nothing else makes any sense to me and I must admit to being bewildered by those, who in the face of what appears so obvious, still believe in a mystical creator.» 
  14. Masood Ehsan (հուլիսի 22, 2006)։ «Islam’s reformers»։ Prospect։ Վերցված է հոկտեմբերի 15, 2015։ «It is a scene I won’t forget in a hurry: Jean-Marie Lehn, French winner of the Nobel prize in chemistry, defending his atheism at a packed public conference at the new Alexandria Library in Egypt» 
  15. «Peter Mitchell – Biographical»։ The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1978։ Nobelprize.org։ Վերցված է հոկտեմբերի 15, 2015 
  16. "Today, I consider myself, in Thomas Huxley's terms, an agnostic. I don’t know whether there is a God or creator, or whatever we may call a higher intelligence or being. I don’t know whether there is an ultimate reason for our being or whether there is anything beyond material phenomena. I may doubt these things as a scientist, as we cannot prove them scientifically, but at the same time we also cannot falsify (disprove) them. For the same reasons, I cannot deny God with certainty, which would make me an atheist. This is a conclusion reached by many scientists." George Olah, A Life of Magic Chemistry
  17. Kocka edited by Jürgen (2010)։ Work in a Modern Society the German Experience in European-American Perspective.։ New York: Berghahn Books, Inc.։ էջ 45։ ISBN 978-1-84545-797-6 
  18. 18,0 18,1 18,2 18,3 18,4 18,5 18,6 18,7 18,8 Pafumi G. R.։ Is Our Vision of God Obsolete?: Often What We Believe Is Not What We Observe։ 2010: Xlibris Corporation։ ISBN 978-1-4500-0396-4 
  19. 19,0 19,1 Pauling Linus, Ikeda Daisaku, Gage Richard L. (1992)։ In quest of peace and the century of life : a dialogue between Linus Pauling and Daisaku Keda։ Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers։ էջեր 21–22։ ISBN 978-0-86720-278-6 
  20. «Max Perutz Interview 2»։ The Vega Science Trust.։ Վերցված է հունիսի 19, 2013 
  21. «Perutz rubbishes Popper and Kuhn»։ TSL EDUCATION LTD.։ նոյեմբերի 28, 1994։ Վերցված է հունիսի 19, 2013։ «Dr Perutz, said: "It is one thing for scientists to oppose creationism which is demonstrably false but quite another to make pronouncements which offend people's religious faith -- that is a form of tactlessness which merely brings science into disrepute. My view of religion and ethics is simple: even if we do not believe in God, we should try to live as though we did."» 
  22. Hargittai István, Hargittai Magdolna (2002)։ Candid science II: conversations with famous biomedical scientists (Verschiedene Aufl. ed.)։ London: Imperial College Press։ էջեր 73–83։ ISBN 1-86094-288-1 
  23. Smith Michael (1993)։ «Michael Smith – Biographical»։ Nobelprize.org։ Վերցված է հոկտեմբերի 15, 2015։ «My only prizes from the Sunday School were "for attendance", so I presume my atheism, which developed when I left home to attend university, although latent, was discernible.» 
  24. Wysong Randy L. (1976)։ The creation-evolution controversy. (7th print ed.)։ Midlanding, Michigan: Inquiry Press։ էջ 75։ ISBN 978-0-918112-02-6 
  25. Ebenstein Lanny (2007)։ Milton Friedman a biography (1st ed.)։ New York: Palgrave Macmillan։ էջ 9։ ISBN 978-0-230-60345-5 
  26. Elzinga Kenneth G., Givens Matthew R. (Spring 2009)։ «Christianity and Hayek»։ Faith & Economics (53): 53–68 
  27. Nasar Sylvia (2012)։ A Beautiful Mind (Reprint ed.)։ Faber & Faber։ էջ 64։ ISBN 978-0-571-26607-4 
  28. From Les Prix Nobel. The Nobel Prizes 1994, Editor Tore Frängsmyr, [Nobel Foundation], Stockholm, 1995
  29. Palfrey Judith S. (2006)։ Child health in America : making a difference through advocacy (Online-Ausg. ed.)։ Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University։ էջ 123։ ISBN 978-0-8018-8453-5 
  30. Cronin Anthony (1999)։ Samuel Beckett : the last modernist (1st Da Capo Press ed.)։ New York: Da Capo Press։ էջ 90։ ISBN 978-0-306-80898-2։ «They were both agnostics, though both set a high associative value on the language in which the traditional religions of their forebears had been expressed, and in conversation and writing were not averse to ironic reference to certain metaphysical concepts.» 
  31. Paulson Arthur C. (1930)։ «Bjørnson and the Norwegian-Americans, 1880–81»։ Studies and Records (Norwegian-American Historical Association) 5: 84–109։ Արխիվացված է օրիգինալից 2016-03-05-ին։ Վերցված է հոկտեմբերի 15, 2015 
  32. 32,0 32,1 32,2 32,3 Barker Dan (2011)։ The good atheist : living a purpose-filled life without God։ Berkeley, CA: Ulysses Press։ ISBN 978-1-56975-846-5 
  33. Maze John Robert (2010)։ Albert Camus : plague and terror, priest and atheist։ Bern: Peter Lang։ ISBN 978-3-0343-0006-3 
  34. Collins Joseph (Fall 2015)։ «Anatole France»։ VQR 91 (4)։ Արխիվացված է օրիգինալից 2012-12-16-ին։ Վերցված է հոկտեմբերի 15, 2015 
  35. Ramesh Chopra (2005)։ Academic Dictionary Of Philosophy։ Gyan Books։ էջ 142։ ISBN 9788182052246։ «His agnosticism is best seen in his 'Moods, Songs, and Doggerels'.» 
  36. Behan Tom (2000)։ Dario Fo : revolutionary theatre։ London: Pluto։ էջ 103։ ISBN 978-0-7453-1362-7 
  37. Bazin Nancy Topping, ed. (1990)։ Conversationwith Nadine Gordimer։ London: University Press of Mississippi։ էջ 151։ ISBN 978-0-87805-445-9 
  38. Gao Xingjian (2000)։ «Nobel Lecture – Literature 2000»։ Nobelprize.org, The Official Web Site of the Նոբելյան մրցանակ։ Վերցված է մարտի 24, 2012։ «… I would like to say that despite my being an atheist I have always shown reverence for the unknowable.» 
  39. Feinstein Adam (2008)։ Pablo neruda.։ Bloomsbury Publishing USA։ էջեր 36, 38, 97։ ISBN 978-1-59691-781-1 
  40. Diggins John Patrick (2007)։ Eugene O'Neill's America desire under democracy։ Chicago: University of Chicago Press։ էջ 130։ ISBN 978-0-226-14882-3։ «O'Neill, an agnostic and an anarchist, maintained little hope in religion or politics and saw institutions not serving to preserve liberty but standing in the way of the birth of true freedom.» 
  41. Sartre Jean-Paul (1985)։ Existentialism and human emotions (1st Carol Pub. Group ed.)։ New York: Philosophical Library։ էջ 15։ ISBN 978-0-8065-0902-0 
  42. «Wole Soyinka»։ Academy of Achievement։ Washington D.C.։ Վերցված է դեկտեմբերի 20, 2013 
  43. Wole Soyinka (2007)։ Climate of Fear: The Quest for Dignity in a Dehumanized World։ Random House LLC։ էջ 119։ ISBN 978-0-307-43082-3։ «I already had certain agnostic tendencies—which would later develop into outright atheistic convictions— so it was not that I believed in any kind of divine protection.» 
  44. Beegel Susan F., Shillinglaw Susan, Tiffney, Jr. Wesley N. (2007)։ Steinbeck and the Environment Interdisciplinary Approaches.։ Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press։ էջ 159։ ISBN 978-0-8173-5487-9 
  45. Benson Jackson J. (1984)։ The true adventures of John Steinbeck, writer: a biography։ Viking Press։ էջ 248։ ISBN 978-0-670-16685-5։ «Ricketts did not convert his friend to a religious point of view — Steinbeck remained an agnostic and, essentially, a materialist — but Ricketts's religious acceptance did tend to work on his friend, …» 
  46. Eberstadt Fernanda (հունիսի 18, 2010)։ «José Saramago, Nobel Prize-Winning Portuguese Writer, Dies at 87»։ The New York TImes։ Վերցված է հոկտեմբերի 15, 2015 
  47. Ceadel Martin (2009)։ Living the great illusion : Sir Norman Angell, 1872–1967։ Oxford: Oxford University Press։ էջ 22։ ISBN 978-0-19-957116-1 
  48. «Gorbachev a closet Christian?»։ Chicago Tribune։ մարտի 23, 2008։ Արխիվացված է օրիգինալից մայիսի 11, 2008-ին 
  49. Gorelik, Gennady, Antonina W. Bouis (2005)։ The World of Andrei Sakharov: A Russian Physicist's Path to Freedom։ Oxford University Press։ էջ 356։ ISBN 978-0-19-515620-1։ «Apparently Sakharov did not need to delve any deeper into it for a long time, remaining a totally nonmilitant atheist with an open heart.» 
  50. Gorelik, Gennadiĭ Efimovich, Antonina W. Bouis (2005)։ The World of Andrei Sakharov: A Russian Physicist's Path to Freedom։ Oxford University Press։ էջ 158։ ISBN 978-0-19-515620-1։ Վերցված է մայիսի 27, 2012։ «Sakharov was not invited to this seminar. Like most of the physicists of his generation, he was an atheist.» 
  51. Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford, eds. (2012)։ The Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Perspectives on Violence, Homicide, and War։ Oxford University Press։ էջ 465։ ISBN 978-0-19-973840-3։ «The Soviet dissident most responsible for defeating communism, Andrei Sakharov, was an atheist.» 
  52. Wiesel Elie Wiesel (2010)։ And the sea is never full memoirs 1969- (Unabridged ed.)։ New York: Alfred Knopf։ էջ 318։ ISBN 978-0-307-76409-6 
  53. «Prominent Russians: Zhores Alferov»։ RT.com։ Վերցված է ապրիլի 21, 2012։ «In public life the scientist is a strong supporter of communism, an atheist strongly objecting to advancement of religious education in Russia, and proponent of science and knowledge as the means to see a better future.» 
  54. «Zhores I. Alferov»։ NNDB.com։ Վերցված է ապրիլի 21, 2012 
  55. "Nuclear power is uniquely unforgiving: as Swedish Nobel physicist Hannes Alfvén said, "No acts of God can be permitted."" Amory Lovins, Inside NOVA – Nuclear After Japan: Amory Lovins, pbs.org.
  56. Helge Kragh (2004)։ Matter and Spirit in the Universe: Scientific and Religious Preludes to Modern Cosmology։ OECD Publishing։ էջ 252։ ISBN 978-1-86094-469-7։ «Alfven dismissed in his address religion as a "myth," and passionately criticized the big-bang theory for being dogmatic and violating basic standards of science, to be no less mythical than religion.» 
  57. Anderson Philip W. (2011)։ More and different notes from a thoughtful curmudgeon։ Singapore: World Scientific։ էջ 177։ ISBN 9789814350143։ «We atheists can . . . argue that, with the modern revolution in attitudes toward homosexuals, we have become the only group that may not reveal itself in normal social discourse.» 
  58. Brian Dennis (2008)։ The Voice of Genius: Conversations with Nobel Scientists and Other Luminaries։ Basic Books։ էջ 117։ ISBN 978-0-465-01139-1 
  59. Nye Mary Jo (2008)։ «Blackett, Patrick Maynard Stuart»։ in Gillispie Charles Coulston։ Complete dictionary of scientific biography 19։ Detroit, Mich.: Charles Scribner's Sons։ էջ 293։ ISBN 978-0-684-31559-1։ «The grandson of a vicar on his father’s side, Blackett respected religious observances that were established social customs, but described himself as agnostic or atheist.» 
  60. Simmons John (2000)։ «Niels Bohr and the atom 1885–1962»։ The scientific 100 : a ranking of the most influential scientists, past and present։ New York, N.Y.: Kensington Pub. Corp.։ էջ 16։ ISBN 978-0-8065-2139-8։ «His mother was warm and intelligent, and his father, as Bohr himself later recalled, recognized "that something was expected of me." The family was not at all devout, and Bohr became an atheist...» 
  61. Peterson Richard (2010)։ «The Copenhagen spirit of science and birth of the nuclear atom»։ in Stewart Melville Y.։ Science and religion in dialogue։ Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell։ էջ 416։ ISBN 978-1-4443-1736-7։ «... after a youth of confirming faith Bohr himself was a non-believer.» 
  62. Favrholdt David (1994)։ «Niels Bohr and realism»։ in Faye Jan, Folse Henry J.։ Niels Bohr and Contemporary Philosophy։ Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands։ էջ 88։ ISBN 9789401581066։ «Planck was religious and had a firm belief in God; Bohr was not, but his objection to Planck's view had no anti-religious motive.» 
  63. «Percy Williams Bridgman»։ NNDB.com։ Վերցված է ապրիլի 24, 2012։ «He was raised in the Congregational Church, but faith in God clashed with his well-known analytical nature and he told his family as a young man that he could not in good conscience become a church member.» 
  64. Maila L. Walter (1990)։ Science and Cultural Crisis: An Intellectual Biography of Percy Williams Bridgman (1882–1961)։ Stanford University Press։ էջեր 14–15։ ISBN 978-0-8047-1796-0։ «Raymond Bridgman was extremely disappointed with his son's rejection of his religious views. Near the end of his life, however, he offered a conciliatory interpretation that allowed him to accept Percy's commitment to honesty and integrity as a moral equivalent to religion.» 
  65. Ray Monk (2013)։ Robert Oppenheimer: A Life Inside the Center։ Random House LLC։ ISBN 978-0-385-50413-3։ «In many ways they were opposites; Kemble, the theorist, was a devout Christian, while Bridgman, the experimentalist, was a strident atheist.» 
  66. Brown Andrew (1997)։ The neutron and the bomb : a biography of Sir James Chadwick (1st ed.)։ Oxford: Oxford University Press։ էջ 362։ ISBN 978-0-19-853992-6։ «He was a lifelong atheist and felt no need to develop religious faith as he approached the end...» 
  67. Vishveshwara C. V. (April 2000)։ «Leaves from an unwritten diary: S. Chandrasekhar, Reminiscences and Reflections»։ Current Science 78 (8): 1025–1033։ Վերցված է հոկտեմբերի 16, 2015։ «In his later years, Chandra had openly admitted to being an atheist which also meant that he subscribed to no religion in the customary sense of the word.» 
  68. Heisenberg Werner (1972)։ Physics and beyond : encounters and conversations (1st Harper Torchbook ed.)։ New York: Harper & Row։ ISBN 0-06-131622-9։ «... Dirac said: "I cannot understand why we idle discussing religion. If we are honest — and as scientists honesty is our precise duty — we cannot help but admit that any religion is a pack of false statements, deprived of any real foundation. The very idea of God is a product of human imagination.[…] I do not recognize any religious myth, at least because they contradict one another.[…]" Pauli jokingly said: "Well, I'd say that also our friend Dirac has got a religion and the first commandment of this religion is: God does not exist and Paul Dirac is his prophet."» 
  69. Dukas Helen, Hoffmann Banesh, eds. (1989)։ Albert Einstein, the human side : new glimpses from his archives։ Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press։ էջ 43։ ISBN 978-0-691-02368-7։ «It was, of course, a lie what you read about my religious convictions, a lie which is being systematically repeated. I do not believe in a personal God and I have never denied this but have expressed it clearly. If something is in me which can be called religious then it is the unbounded admiration for the structure of the world so far as our science can reveal it.» 
  70. 70,0 70,1 70,2 Calaprice Alice, ed. (2000)։ The expanded quotable Einstein (New ed.)։ Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press։ ISBN 978-0-691-07021-6 
  71. Frankenberry Nancy K. (2008)։ The faith of scientists in their own words։ Princeton: Princeton University Press։ էջ 153։ ISBN 978-0-691-13487-1 
  72. Feynman Richard P. (2011)։ Leighton Ralph, ed.։ "What Do You Care What Other People Think?": Further Adventures of a Curious Character։ W. W. Norton & Company։ էջ 25։ ISBN 978-0-393-07981-4։ «The elders began getting nervous, because I was an avowed atheist by that time» 
  73. «Val Fitch»։ NNDB.com։ Վերցված է հուլիսի 18, 2012 
  74. Nachmansohn David (1979)։ German-Jewish pioneers in science, 1900–1933.։ Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer։ էջ 62։ ISBN 978-0-387-90402-3։ «As he said, science was his God and nature his religion. He did not insist that his daughters attend religious instruction classes (Religionsunterricht) in school. But he was very proud of his Jewish heritage..» 
  75. Brigham Narins (2001)։ Notable Scientists from 1900 to the Present: D-H։ Gale Group։ էջ 797։ ISBN 978-0-7876-1753-0։ «Although Gabor's family became Lutherans in 1918, religion appeared to play a minor role in his life. He maintained his church affiliation through his adult years but characterized himself as a "benevolent agnostic".» 
  76. "The family adopted the Lutheran faith in 1918, and although Gabor nominally remained true to it, religion appears to have had little influence in his life. He later acknowledged the role played by an antireligious humanist education in the development of his ideas and stated his position as being that of a “benevolent agnostic.”" "Gabor, Dennis." Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 2008. Encyclopedia.com. (30 January 2012).
  77. Wouk Herman (2010)։ The language God talks on science and religion (1st ed.)։ New York, NY: Little, Brown and Co.։ էջ 17։ ISBN 978-0-316-09675-1 
  78. Vitaly Ginzburg (2003)։ «Vitaly L. Ginzburg – Autobiography»։ Nobelprize.org, The Official Web Site of the Նոբելյան մրցանակ։ Վերցված է մարտի 24, 2012։ «I am an atheist, that is, I think nothing exists except and beyond nature. Within the limits of my, undoubtedly insufficient knowledge of the history of philosophy, I do not see in fact any difference between atheism and the pantheism of Spinoza.» 
  79. Sample Ian (նոյեմբերի 17, 2007)։ «The god of small things»։ London: The Guardian։ Վերցված է մարտի 21, 2013։ «The name has stuck, but makes Higgs wince and raises the hackles of other theorists. "I wish he hadn't done it," he says. "I have to explain to people it was a joke. I'm an atheist, but I have an uneasy feeling that playing around with names like that could be unnecessarily offensive to people who are religious."» 
  80. «Gerardus `t Hooft – Science Video Interview»։ 2004։ Վերցված է ապրիլի 25, 2012։ «When asked by the interviewer about his view of the universe and the design or non-design of the universe, Hooft replied, "Well absolutely amazing fact that it seems that the entire universe is now in grasp of theoretical physics. It still highly premature to make theories that includes how the big bang originated as and things like that. Although, people are tying that every day. ...As far as I'm concerned, everything seems to behave completely rationally. The laws of physics is all we need to understand how the universe got into being. And then eventually we end up with this religious question as to why is the universe is the way it is and how can it be it is a place for humans to live in, that is a miracle. I don't have really any answers here, but as a physicist I've learn to appreciate the fact that everything seems to have totally rational explanations and as far as I'm concerned, I expect the entire universe now also to be something you can explain in completely rational terms. That what I expect now, just because of past experience."» 
  81. «Gerardus `t Hooft – Science Video Interview»։ 2004։ Վերցված է ապրիլի 25, 2012։ «When asked by the interviewer about his belief in an afterlife, Hooft replied, "Well, such beliefs I think I related to religions of the past and I don't think that notions such as 'afterlife' has any...scientific basis. Not in terms of modern science. So I can only say no."» 
  82. Kroemer Herbert։ «Herbert Kroemer – Science Video Interview»։ «Interviewer: "You have no belief in a afterlife?" Kroemer: "That's correct." Interviewer: "...You don't see the evidence of a designer?" Kroemer: "No, I don't." Interviewer: "Could you say more about it?" Kroemer: "I think it's just wishful thinking."» 
  83. Schaefer Henry F. (2008)։ Science and Christianity : conflict or coherence?։ Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia։ էջ 9։ ISBN 0-9742975-0-X։ «I present here two examples of notable atheists. The first is Lev Landau, the most brilliant Soviet physicist of the twentieth century.» 
  84. Dan Falk (2005)։ «What About God?»։ Universe on a T-Shirt: The Quest for the Theory of Everything։ Arcade Publishing։ էջ 195։ ISBN 978-1-55970-733-6։ «"Physics isn't a religion. If it were, we'd have a much easier time raising money." - Leon Lederman» 
  85. Babu Gogineni (հուլիսի 10, 2012)։ «It’s the Atheist Particle, actually»։ Postnoon News։ Վերցված է հուլիսի 10, 2012։ «Leon Lederman is himself an atheist and he regrets the term, and Peter Higgs who is an atheist too, has expressed his displeasure, but the damage has been done!» 
  86. Barrow John D. (2000)։ The book of nothing : vacuums, voids, and the latest ideas about the origins of the universe (1st Vintage Books ed.)։ New York: Vintage Books։ էջ 136։ ISBN 978-0-375-72609-5 
  87. Eremoenko Alexey (հոկտեմբերի 9, 2014)։ «Q&A: Russian Nobel Laureate on Fun, God and the 'Ideal Physicist'»։ The Moscow Times։ Վերցված է փետրվարի 16, 2016 
  88. Bernard Valeur, Jean-Claude Brochon (2001)։ New Trends in Fluorescence Spectroscopy: Applications to Chemical and Life Sciences։ Springer։ էջ 17։ ISBN 978-3-540-67779-6։ «Jean and Francis Perrin held similar political and philosophical ideas. Both were socialists and atheists.» 
  89. Moore Walter (1994)։ A life of Erwin Schrödinger։ Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press։ էջ 86։ ISBN 978-0-521-46934-0։ «Schopenhauer often called himself an atheist, as did Schrodinger, and if Buddhism and Vedanta can be truly described as atheistic religions, both the philosopher and his scientific disciple were indeed atheists. They both rejected the idea of a "personal God" …» 
  90. Diem-Lane Andrea (2008)։ Spooky Physics: Einstein vs. Bohr։ MSAC Philosophy Group։ էջ 68։ ISBN 978-1-56543-080-8։ «In terms of religion, Schrodinger fits in the atheist camp. He even lost a marriage proposal to his love, Felicie Krauss, not only due to his social status but his lack of religious affiliation. He was known as a freethinker who did not believe in god.» 
  91. Lutzer Erwin W.։ 7 Reasons Why You Can Trust the Bible։ ISBN 9780802493279։ «George Smoot, a committed atheist, admitted, “There is no doubt that a parallel exists between the big bang as an event and the Christian notion of creation .."» 
  92. The International Academy of Humanism at the website of the Council for Secular Humanism. Retrieved 18 October 2007. Some of this information is also at the International Humanist and Ethical Union Archived 2012-04-18 at the Wayback Machine. website
  93. Istva ́n Hargittai, Magdolna Hargittai (2006)։ Candid Science VI: More Conversations with Famous Scientists։ Imperial College Press։ էջ 749։ ISBN 978-1-86094-885-5։ «Jack Steinberger: "I'm now a bit anti-Jewish since my last visit to the synagogue, but my atheism does not necessarily reject religion."» 
  94. Ginzburg, V. L. (2005)։ About Science, Myself and Others։ CRC Press։ էջ 253։ ISBN 978-0-7503-0992-9։ «Nowadays, when we are facing manifestations of religious and. more often, pseudoreligious feelings, it is appropriate to mention that Igor Evgenevich was a convinced and unreserved atheist.» 
  95. Feinberg, E. L. & Leonidov, A. V. (2011)։ Physicists: Epoch and Personalities (2 ed.)։ World Scientific։ էջ 86։ ISBN 9789812834164 
  96. Azpurua Ana Elena (մարտի 24, 2008)։ «In Search of the God Particle»։ Newsweek։ էջ 3։ Վերցված է մարտի 25, 2008։ «I don't believe in God, but I don't make a religion out of not believing in God. I don't organize my life around that.» 
  97. Jesse Hong Xiong (2009)։ «Seven»։ The Outline of Parapsychology։ Rowman & Littlefield։ էջ 322։ ISBN 978-0-7618-4945-2։ «When a reporter asked him: “Do you believe there is a Creator who creates all in the universe?" Professor Chen Ning Yang (1922- ), a Chinese Nobel Prize winner in physics in 1957, answered: “I think it is hard for me to directly say 'yes' or 'no'. I can only say that when we more and more understand the wonderful structures in the nature, no matter whether we directly or indirectly ask the question, there does exist the question you ask: is there someone or God who takes charge of all? I think it is a question that will never be finally answered. (The reporter asked: 'Is it because what man knows is too limited?') On one hand, yes; on the other hand, we can have a feeling that the universe will not be created so wonderful without an ultimate goal.” Professor Yang held agnosticism here.» 
  98. Craver Carl F (2008)։ «Axelrod, Julius»։ Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography 19։ Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons։ էջ 122։ «Although he became an atheist early in life and resented the strict upbringing of his parents’ religion, he identified with Jewish culture and joined several international fights against anti-Semitism.» 
  99. Robert W. Baloh։ «Robert Bárány and the controversy surrounding his discovery of the caloric reaction»։ Neurology.org։ Վերցված է մայիսի 14, 2012։ «Although anti-Semitism was again on the rise in Austria, it is unlikely that anti-Semitism was a factor in the hostility toward Bárány because he was an agnostic who did not believe in Zionism.» 
  100. George Beadle, An Uncommon Farmer: The Emergence of Genetics in the 20th Century. CSHL Press. 2003. p. 273. ISBN 9780879696887. Beadle's views on this occasion were somewhat more tempered than David's characterization of him as a "vehement atheist," and from his earliest days "intolerant of religion and other forms of superstition.
  101. «J. Michael Bishop»։ NNDB.com։ Վերցված է հուլիսի 18, 2012 
  102. https://books.google.am/books?id=bDHwCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA32&lpg=PA32&dq=sydney+brenner+atheist+Candid+Science+VI:+More+Conversations+with+Famous+Scientists&source=bl&ots=DuNWarx1yJ&sig=HJV6P93x4czv3Kb5EqQdDaPIc98&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjBjeKX4fbOAhUE9h4KHUBAA4YQ6AEIJzAB#v=onepage&q=sydney%20brenner%20atheist%20Candid%20Science%20VI%3A%20More%20Conversations%20with%20Famous%20Scientists&f=false
  103. Crick Francis (1988)։ What mad pursuit : a personal view of scientific discovery։ New York: Basic Books։ էջ 10։ ISBN 0-465-09138-5 
  104. Crick Francis (3–5 February 1990)։ «How I Got Inclined Towards Atheism»։ Atheist Centre 1940–1990 Golden Jubilee International Conference Souvenir։ Vijayawada, India: Positive Atheism։ Վերցված է հոկտեմբերի 15, 2015 
  105. Steyn Mark (October 2004)։ «The Twentieth-Century Darwin»։ The Atlantic Monthly 
  106. Siegel Ralph M., Callaway Edward M. (2004)։ «Francis Crick's Legacy for Neuroscience: Between the α and the Ω»։ PLoS Biology 2 (12): e419։ PMC 535570։ PMID 17593891։ doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020419։ «Francis Crick was an evangelical atheist.» 
  107. Highfield Roger (20 Mar 2003)։ «Do our genes reveal the hand of God?»։ The Telegraph։ Վերցված է հոկտեմբերի 15, 2015։ «Crick, 86, said: "The god hypothesis is rather discredited."» 
  108. «Max Delbrück»։ NNDB.com։ Վերցված է մայիսի 14, 2012 
  109. Walter Shropshire (2007)։ Max Delbrück and the New Perception of Biology, 1906–1981: A Centenary Celebration, University of Salamanca, October 9–10, 2006։ AuthorHouse։ էջ 155։ ISBN 978-1-4343-1435-2։ «As far as I know, he never identified himself as a member of any formal church or religious faith, but neither did he reject religion. He had a deeply felt respect for all faiths, believing that regardless of the details, they all fill basically the same human aspirations.» 
  110. Ruse Michael։ «Life Evolving: Molecules, Mind, and Meaning by Christian de Duve (Introductory essay)»։ The International Society for Science and Religion library project։ Վերցված է հոկտեմբերի 15, 2015 
  111. Trevor Illtyd Williams (1984)։ Howard Florey, Penicillin and After։ Oxford University Press։ էջ 363։ ISBN 978-0-19-858173-4։ «As an agnostic, the chapel services meant nothing to Florey but, unlike some contemporary scientists, he was not aggressive in his disbelief.» 
  112. Paolo Mazzarello, Henry A. Buchtel, Aldo Badiani (1999)։ The hidden structure: a scientific biography of Camillo Golgi։ Oxford University Press։ էջ 34։ ISBN 978-0-19-852444-1։ «It was probably during this period that Golgi became agnostic (or even frankly atheistic), remaining for the rest of his life completely alien to the religious experience.» 
  113. «Frederick Hopkins»։ NNDB.com։ Վերցված է հուլիսի 18, 2012 
  114. «Obituary: Andrew Huxley»։ The Economist։ հունիսի 16, 2012։ Վերցված է մայիսի 14, 2013։ «He did not even mind the master's duty of officiating in chapel, since he was, he explained, not atheist but agnostic (a word usefully invented by his grandfather), and was “very conscious that there is no scientific explanation for the fact that we are conscious.”» 
  115. Jacob, The Statue Within, pp 20–57. Quotes from pp 42 and 53.
  116. Dawson, M. Joan. Paul Lauterbur and the Invention of MRI. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2013. Print. "Paul became an atheist, revering intellectual honesty and the quest for truth."
  117. http://www.nndb.com/people/110/000125732/
  118. http://freethoughtalmanac.com/?p=6639
  119. Medawar Peter (1996)։ The strange case of the spotted mice and other classic essays on science (5th ed.)։ Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press։ էջեր 207–211։ ISBN 978-0-19-286193-1 
  120. Lubbock Richard։ «Peaks, Dust, & Dappled Spots»։ Books in Canada: The Canadian Review of Books։ Վերցված է հոկտեմբերի 15, 2015։ «In his final chapter de Duve turns to the meaning of life, and considers the ideas of two contrasting Frenchmen: a priest, Teilhard de Chardin, and an existentialist and atheist, Jacques Monod.» 
  121. Horowitz Norman H. (August 1998)։ «T. H. Morgan at Caltech: A Reminiscence»։ Genetics 149 (4): 1629–1632։ PMC 1460264։ PMID 9691024։ Վերցված է հոկտեմբերի 15, 2015։ «Morgan's passion for experimentation was symptomatic of his general scepticism and his distaste for speculation. He believed only what could be proven. He was said to be an atheist, and I have always believed that he was. Everything I knew about him—his scepticism, his honesty—was consistent with disbelief in the supernatural.» 
  122. Pontecorvo G. (November 1968)։ ։ Quote from p. 353։ «Hermann Joseph Muller. 1890–1967»։ Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 14: 348–389։ JSTOR 769450։ doi:10.1098/rsbm.1968.0015։ «Muller, who through Unitarianism had become an enthusiastic pantheist, was converted both to atheism and to socialism.» 
  123. Tauber Alfred I., Chernyak Leon (1991)։ Metchnikoff and the Origins of Immunology : From Metaphor to Theory: From Metaphor to Theory։ Oxford University Press։ էջ 5։ ISBN 978-0-19-534510-0։ «... his personal religious commitment was to atheism, although he received strict Christian religious training at home. Metchnikoff's atheism smacked of religious fervor in the embrace of rationalism and science.» 
  124. Costantino Ceoldo (2012-12-31)։ «Homage to Rita Levi Montalcini»։ Վերցված է հուլիսի 20, 2013։ «Born and raised in a Sephardic Jewish family in which culture and love of learning were categorical imperatives, she abandoned religion and embraced atheism.» 
  125. Nurse Paul (2001)։ «Sir Paul Nurse – Biographical»։ Nobelprize.org։ Վերցված է հոկտեմբերի 15, 2015։ «I gradually slipped away from religion over several years and became an atheist or to be more philosophically correct, a sceptical agnostic.» 
  126. Windholz George (September 1986)։ «Pavlov's Religious Orientation»։ Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 25 (3): 320։ JSTOR 1386296։ doi:10.2307/1386296։ «Pavlov's follower E.M. Kreps asked him whether he was religious. Kreps writes that Pavlov smiled and replied: "Listen, good fellow, in regard to [claims of] my religiosity, my belief in God, my church attendance, there is no truth in it; it is sheer fantasy. I was a seminarian, and like the majority of seminarians, I became an unbeliever, an atheist in my school years."» 
  127. Reville William (ապրիլի 20, 2006)։ «A bright journey to atheism, or a road that ignores all the signs?»։ The Irish Times։ Վերցված է հոկտեմբերի 15, 2015 
  128. «John E. Sulston»։ NNDB։ Soylent Communications։ Վերցված է ապրիլի 21, 2014 
  129. «Adofo Pérez Esquivel»։ Nobel Prize Committee 
  130. «Albert Szent-Györgyi»։ NNDB.com։ Վերցված է հուլիսի 18, 2012 
  131. Deirdre Barrett (2010)։ Supernormal Stimuli: How Primal Urges Overran Their Evolutionary Purpose։ W. W. Norton & Company։ էջեր 21–22։ ISBN 978-0-393-06848-1։ «Tinbergen had never been a religious man. Wartime atrocities, however, had highlighted the absence of a deity for him while both sides invoked one aligned with themselves, and this turned him into a militant atheist.» 
  132. Highfield Roger (մարտի 20, 2003)։ «Do our genes reveal the hand of God?»։ The Telegraph։ Վերցված է հոկտեմբերի 15, 2015 

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