Mahātmā Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (/, -/; Կաղապար:IPA-hns; 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. The honorific Mahātmā (Sanskrit: "high-souled", "venerable")—applied to him first in 1914 in South Africa—is now used worldwide. In India, he is also called Bapu (Gujarati: endearment for father, papa) and Gandhi ji. He is unofficially called the Father of the Nation.Born and raised in a Hindu merchant caste family in coastal Gujarat, India, and trained in law at the Inner Temple, London, Gandhi first employed nonviolent civil disobedience as an expatriate lawyer in South Africa, in the resident Indian community's struggle for civil rights. After his return to India in 1915, he set about organising peasants, farmers, and urban labourers to protest against excessive land-tax and discrimination. Assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns for various social causes and for achieving Swaraj or self-rule.400 km (250 mi) Dandi Salt March in 1930, and later in calling for the British to Quit India in 1942. He was imprisoned for many years, upon many occasions, in both South Africa and India. He lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven with yarn hand-spun on a charkha. He ate simple vegetarian food, and also undertook long fasts as a means of both self-purification and political protest.Gandhi famously led Indians in challenging the British-imposed salt tax with the
- "Gandhi" Archived 14 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
- McGregor Ronald Stuart (1993)։ The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary։ Oxford University Press։ էջ 799։ ISBN 978-0-19-864339-5։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից 12 October 2013-ին։ Վերցված է 31 August 2013 Quote: (mahā- (S. "great, mighty, large, ..., eminent") + ātmā (S. "1.soul, spirit; the self, the individual; the mind, the heart; 2. the ultimate being."): "high-souled, of noble nature; a noble or venerable man."
- Gandhi, Rajmohan (2006) p. 172: "... Kasturba would accompany Gandhi on his departure from Cape Town for England in July 1914 en route to India. ... In different South African towns (Pretoria, Cape Town, Bloemfontein, Johannesburg, and the Natal cities of Durban and Verulam), the struggle's martyrs were honoured and the Gandhi's bade farewell. Addresses in Durban and Verulam referred to Gandhi as a 'Mahatma', 'great soul'. He was seen as a great soul because he had taken up the poor's cause. The whites too said good things about Gandhi, who predicted a future for the Empire if it respected justice." (p. 172).
- McAllister Pam (1982)։ Reweaving the Web of Life: Feminism and Nonviolence։ New Society Publishers։ էջ 194։ ISBN 978-0-86571-017-7։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից 12 October 2013-ին։ Վերցված է 31 August 2013 Quote: "With love, Yours, Bapu (You closed with the term of endearment used by your close friends, the term you used with all the movement leaders, roughly meaning 'Papa.'" Another letter written in 1940 shows similar tenderness and caring.
- Eck Diana L. (2003)։ Encountering God: A Spiritual Journey from Bozeman to Banaras։ Beacon Press։ էջ 210։ ISBN 978-0-8070-7301-8։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից 12 October 2013-ին։ Վերցված է 31 August 2013 Quote: "... his niece Manu, who, like others called this immortal Gandhi 'Bapu,' meaning not 'father,' but the familiar, 'daddy.'" (p. 210)
- "Gandhi not formally conferred 'Father of the Nation' title: Govt" Archived 6 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine., The Indian Express, 11 July 2012.
- "Constitution doesn't permit 'Father of the Nation' title: Government" Archived 7 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine., The Times of India, 26 October 2012.