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Ընկերության պատմությունը[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

From left to right: Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim

Յութուբը հիմնվել է Չեդ Հարլիի, Սթիվ Չենի և Ջոուդ Քարիմի կողմից, ովքեր եղել են PayPal ընկերության աշխատակիցներ։[1] Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, and Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.[2]

Համաձայն պատմության՝ Հարլին և Չենը զարգացրել են ՅուԹյուբի գաղափարը 2005 թվականի առաջին ամիսներին, այն բանից հետո, երբ նրանք Սան Ֆրանցիսկոյում Չենի տանը տեղի ունեցած ընթրիքի տեսահոլովակները տարածելու հարցում դժվարությունների առաջ են կանգնել։ Քարիմը ընթրիքին ներկա չէր և արգելել էր, որ այն տեղի ունենա, սակայն Չենը ասում է, որ ՅուԹյուբի գաղափարը առաջացել է ընթրիքից հետո. «Հավանաբար շատ քաջալերված էի հեշտ ընկալելի պատմության ստեղծման մարկետինգային գաղափարներով»։[3]

Քարիմը ասում է, որ ՅուԹյուբի առաջին օգեշնչումը եկել է 2004 թվականին Super Bowl incident ում Ջանեթ Ջեքսոնի դերից, երբ կատարման ժամանակ ընդգծբում էր նրա կուրծքը և հետագայում, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunamiի ժամանակ Քարիմը չէր կարողանում գտնել այդ իրադարձություններից և ոչ մեկի առցանց տեսագրությունը, ինչն էլ ծնել է տեսանյութերով կիսվելու կայքի գաղափարը։[4] Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, and had been influenced by the website Hot or Not.[5][6]

YouTube began as a venture-funded technology startup, primarily from a $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital between November 2005 and April 2006.[7] YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California.[8] The domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, and the website was developed over the subsequent months.[9]

The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo.[10] The video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, and can still be viewed on the site.[11]

YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005, six months before the official launch in November 2005. The site grew rapidly, and in July 2006 the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, and that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day.[12] According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010.[13]

YouTube says that 300 hours of new videos are uploaded to the site every minute,[14] three times more than one year earlier[15] and that around three quarters of the material comes from outside the U.S.[16][17][18] The site has 800 million unique users a month.[19] It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000.[20] Alexa ranks YouTube as the third most visited website on the Internet, behind Google and Facebook.[21]

The choice of the name www.youtube.com led to problems for a similarly named website, www.utube.com. The site's owner, Universal Tube & Rollform Equipment, filed a lawsuit against YouTube in November 2006 after being regularly overloaded by people looking for YouTube. Universal Tube has since changed the name of its website to www.utubeonline.com.[22][23]

In October 2006, Google Inc. announced that it had acquired YouTube for $1.65 billion in Google stock, and the deal was finalized on November 13, 2006.[24]

Google does not provide detailed figures for YouTube's running costs, and YouTube's revenues in 2007 were noted as "not material" in a regulatory filing.[25] In June 2008, a Forbes magazine article projected the 2008 revenue at $200 million, noting progress in advertising sales.[26] In January 2012, it was estimated that visitors to YouTube spent an average of 15 minutes a day on the site, in contrast to the four or five hours a day spent by a typical U.S. citizen watching television.[19]

YouTube entered into a marketing and advertising partnership with NBC in June 2006.[27] In November 2008, YouTube reached an agreement with MGM, Lions Gate Entertainment, and CBS, allowing the companies to post full-length films and television episodes on the site, accompanied by advertisements in a section for US viewers called "Shows". The move was intended to create competition with websites such as Hulu, which features material from NBC, Fox, and Disney.[28][29] In November 2009, YouTube launched a version of "Shows" available to UK viewers, offering around 4,000 full-length shows from more than 60 partners.[30] In January 2010, YouTube introduced an online film rentals service,[31] which is available only to users in the US, Canada and the UK as of 2010.[32][33] The service offers over 6,000 films.[34]

YouTube's headquarters as of 2010 in San Bruno, California.

In March 2010, YouTube began free streaming of certain content, including 60 cricket matches of the Indian Premier League. According to YouTube, this was the first worldwide free online broadcast of a major sporting event.[35]

On March 31, 2010, the YouTube website launched a new design, with the aim of simplifying the interface and increasing the time users spend on the site. Google product manager Shiva Rajaraman commented: "We really felt like we needed to step back and remove the clutter."[36] In May 2010, it was reported that YouTube was serving more than two billion videos a day, which it described as "nearly double the prime-time audience of all three major US television networks combined".[37] In May 2011, YouTube reported in its company blog that the site was receiving more than three billion views per day.[17] In January 2012, YouTube stated that the figure had increased to four billion videos streamed per day.[16]

In October 2010, Hurley announced that he would be stepping down as chief executive officer of YouTube to take an advisory role, and that Salar Kamangar would take over as head of the company.[38]

In April 2011, James Zern, a YouTube software engineer, revealed that 30% of videos accounted for 99% of views on the site.[39]

In November 2011, the Google+ social networking site was integrated directly with YouTube and the Chrome web browser, allowing YouTube videos to be viewed from within the Google+ interface.[40] In December 2011, YouTube launched a new version of the site interface, with the video channels displayed in a central column on the home page, similar to the news feeds of social networking sites.[41] At the same time, a new version of the YouTube logo was introduced with a darker shade of red, the first change in design since October 2006.[42]

In May 2013, YouTube launched a pilot program to begin offering some content providers the ability to charge $0.99 per month or more for certain channels, but the vast majority of its videos would remain free to view.[43][44]

In February 2015, YouTube announced the launch a new app specifically for use by children visiting the site, called YouTube Kids. It allows parental controls and restrictions on who can upload content, and will initially be available on Google's Android devices only.[45]




ՅուԹյուբի միջերեսը համաձայն IP հասցեի առաջարկում է տեղական տարբերակի օգտագործումը։ Որոշ դեպքերում կարելի է տեսնել «This video is not available in your country» (Տեսանյութը հասանելի չէ Ձեր երկրի համար) հաղորդագրությունը, ինչը կախված է հեղինակային իրավունքների սահմանափակումներից կամ աչ պատճաշ կոնտենտով։[46]

Կայքը հասանելի է 61 լեզուներով։ Դրանցից որոշները չունեն իրենց տեղական ալիքներր։[47]

Music Key[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

2014 թվականի նոյեմբերի 12-ին ՅուԹյուբը ներկայացրեց Music Key ծառայությունը։ Այն իրենից ներկայացնում է հոսքային երաժշտության պահանջարկի համեմատության ծառայություն, որը մատուցում է կայքում տեղադրված պաշտոնական տեսահոլովակների նվագարկում առանց գովազդի։ Music Key ծառայությունը պլանավորվում է միացնել ներկայիս Google Play Music "Ամբողջական մուտք" վճարովի ծառայությունը։[48][49][50]

Սոցիալական ազդեցությունը[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Both private individuals[51] and large production companies[52] have used YouTube to grow audiences. Independent content creators have built grassroots followings numbering in the thousands at very little cost or effort, while mass retail and radio promotion proved problematic.[51] Concurrently, old media celebrities moved into the website at the invitation of a YouTube management that witnessed early content creators accruing substantial followings, and perceived audience sizes potentially larger than that attainable by television.[52] While YouTube's revenue-sharing "Partner Program" made it possible to earn a substantial living as a video producer—its top five hundred partners each earning more than $100,000 annually[53]—in 2012 CMU business editor characterized YouTube as "a free-to-use... promotional platform for the music labels".[54] In 2013 Forbes' Katheryn Thayer asserted that digital-era artists' work must not only be of high quality, but must elicit reactions on the YouTube platform and social media.[55] In 2013, videos of the 2.5% of artists categorized as "mega", "mainstream" and "mid-sized" received 90.3% of the relevant views on YouTube and Vevo.[56] By early 2013 Billboard had announced that it was factoring YouTube streaming data into calculation of the Billboard Hot 100 and related genre charts.[57]

Observing that face-to-face communication of the type that online videos convey has been "fine-tuned by millions of years of evolution", TED curator Chris Anderson referred to several YouTube contributors and asserted that "what Gutenberg did for writing, online video can now do for face-to-face communication".[58] Anderson asserted that it's not far-fetched to say that online video will dramatically accelerate scientific advance, and that video contributors may be about to launch "the biggest learning cycle in human history."[58] In education, for example, the Khan Academy grew from YouTube video tutoring sessions for founder Salman Khan's cousin into what Forbes'  Michael Noer called "the largest school in the world", with technology poised to disrupt how people learn.[59]

YouTube was awarded a 2008 George Foster Peabody Award, the website being described as a Speakers' Corner that "both embodies and promotes democracy."[60] The Washington Post reported that a disproportionate share of YouTube's most subscribed channels feature minorities, contrasting with mainstream television in which the stars are largely white.[61]

A Pew Research Center study reported the development of "visual journalism", in which citizen eyewitnesses and established news organizations share in content creation.[62] The study also concluded that YouTube was becoming an important platform by which people acquire news.[63]

YouTube has enabled people to more directly engage with government, such as in the CNN/YouTube presidential debates (2007) in which ordinary people submitted questions to U.S. presidential candidates via YouTube video, with a techPresident co-founder saying that Internet video was changing the political landscape.[64] Describing the Arab Spring (2010- ), sociologist Philip N. Howard quoted an activist's succinct description that organizing the political unrest involved using "Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the world."[65] In 2012, more than a third of the U.S. Senate introduced a resolution condemning Joseph Kony 16 days after the "Kony 2012" video was posted to YouTube, with resolution co-sponsor Senator Lindsey Graham remarking that the video "will do more to lead to (Kony's) demise than all other action combined."[66]

Leading YouTube content creators met at the White House with U.S. President Obama to discuss how government could better connect with the "YouTube generation".[67][68]

Conversely, YouTube has also allowed government to more easily engage with citizens, the White House's official YouTube channel being the seventh top news organization producer on YouTube in 2012[69] and in 2013 a healthcare exchange commissioned Obama impersonator Iman Crosson's YouTube music video spoof to encourage young Americans to enroll in the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)-compliant health insurance.[70] In February 2014, U.S. President Obama held a meeting at the White House with leading YouTube content creators to not only promote awareness of Obamacare[71] but more generally to develop ways for government to better connect with the "YouTube Generation".[67] Whereas YouTube's inherent ability to allow presidents to directly connect with average citizens was noted, the YouTube content creators' new media savvy was perceived necessary to better cope with the website's distracting content and fickle audience.[67]

Some YouTube videos have themselves had a direct effect on world events, such as Innocence of Muslims (2012) which spurred protests and related anti-American violence internationally.[72]

TED curator Chris Anderson described a phenomenon by which geographically distributed individuals in a certain field share their independently developed skills in YouTube videos, thus challenging others to improve their own skills, and spurring invention and evolution in that field.[58] Journalist Virginia Heffernan stated in The New York Times that such videos have "surprising implications" for the dissemination of culture and even the future of classical music.[73]

The Legion of Extraordinary Dancers[74] and the YouTube Symphony Orchestra[75] selected their membership based on individual video performances.[58][75] Further, the cybercollaboration charity video "We Are the World 25 for Haiti (YouTube edition)" was formed by mixing performances of 57 globally distributed singers into a single musical work,[76] with The Tokyo Times noting the "We Pray for You" YouTube cyber-collaboration video as an example of a trend to use crowdsourcing for charitable purposes.[77]

The anti-bullying It Gets Better Project expanded from a single YouTube video directed to discouraged or suicidal LGBT teens,[78] that within two months drew video responses from hundreds including U.S. President Barack Obama, Vice President Biden, White House staff, and several cabinet secretaries.[79] Similarly, in response to fifteen year old Amanda Todd's video "My story: Struggling, bullying, suicide, self harm", legislative action was undertaken almost immediately after her suicide to study the prevalence of bullying and form a national anti-bullying strategy.[80]

Եկամուտների ազբյուրներ[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

ՅուԹյուբում տեղադրված տեսանյութերի մեծամասնությունը անվճար են և ուղեկցվում են գովազդներով։[43] In May 2007, YouTube launched its Partner Program, a system based on AdSense which allows the uploader of the video to share the revenue produced by advertising on the site.[81] Կայքը սովորաբար իրենց է վերցնում գովազից եկող եկամտի 45 տոկոսը, իսկ 55 տոկոսը ստանում է տեսանյութը բեռնողը։[82] ՅուԹյուբի գործընկերի ծրագրի մասնակիցների թիվը գերազանցում է մեկ միլիոնը։[83] Ըստ TubeMogul-ի, 2013 թվականին ՅուԹյուբի այն գովազդները, որ ցուցադրվում են մինչև տեսանյութի սկսվելը, գովազդ պատվիրողների համար յուրաքանչյուր 1000 դիտման համար արժեցել է 7.60 ԱՄՆ դոլար։ Հաճախ շատ գովազդի պայմաններին համապատասխանող տեսանյութերում գովազդներ չեն տեղադրվում, ինչի պատճառը գովազդատուների հետաքրքրության պակասն է։[84] Հաշվելով 2013 թվականի տվյալները՝ մինչև տեսանյութը ցուցադրվող գովազդների միջոցով ՅուԹյուբի «գործընկերը» յուրաքաչյուր իր վերբեռնած տեսանյութի յուրաքանչյուր 1000 դիտման դեպքում ստացել է 0.5 X 7.60 X 55% = 2.09 ԱՄՆ դոլար եկամուտ։[84]

2013 թվականի մայիսին ՅուԹյուբը ներկայացրեց բաժաննորդագրությունների 53 ալիքներ, որոնց արժեքը տատանվում է ամսական 0.99-ից 6.99 ԱՄՆ դոլարի միջակայքում։[85] Այս քայլը համարվում է փորձ՝ մրցելու բաժանորդագրությունների նմանատիպ ծառայությունների հետ, ինչպիս եք Netflix-ը և Hulu-ն։[43]

Community policy[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

YouTube has a set of community guidelines aimed to reduce abuse of the site's features. Generally prohibited material includes sexually explicit content, videos of animal abuse, shock videos, content uploaded without the copyright holder's consent, hate speech, spam, and predatory behaviour.[86] Despite the guidelines, YouTube has faced criticism from news sources for content in violation of these guidelines.

Copyrighted material[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

At the time of uploading a video, YouTube users are shown a message asking them not to violate copyright laws.[87] Despite this advice, there are still many unauthorized clips of copyrighted material on YouTube. YouTube does not view videos before they are posted online, and it is left to copyright holders to issue a DMCA takedown notice pursuant to the terms of the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act. Three successful complaints for copyright infringement against a user account will result in the account and all of its uploaded videos being deleted.[88][89]

Organizations including Viacom, Mediaset, and the English Premier League have filed lawsuits against YouTube, claiming that it has done too little to prevent the uploading of copyrighted material.[90][91][92] Viacom, demanding $1 billion in damages, said that it had found more than 150,000 unauthorized clips of its material on YouTube that had been viewed "an astounding 1.5 billion times". YouTube responded by stating that it "goes far beyond its legal obligations in assisting content owners to protect their works".[93]

During the same court battle, Viacom won a court ruling requiring YouTube to hand over 12 terabytes of data detailing the viewing habits of every user who has watched videos on the site. The decision was criticized by the Electronic Frontier Foundation, which called the court ruling "a setback to privacy rights".[94][95] In June 2010, Viacom's lawsuit against Google was rejected in a summary judgment, with U.S. federal Judge Louis L. Stanton stating that Google was protected by provisions of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Viacom announced its intention to appeal the ruling.[96]

On April 5, 2012, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit reinstated the case, allowing Viacom's lawsuit against Google to be heard in court again.[97] On March 18, 2014, the lawsuit was settled after seven years with an undisclosed agreement.[98]

In August 2008, a US court ruled in Lenz v. Universal Music Corp. that copyright holders cannot order the removal of an online file without first determining whether the posting reflected fair use of the material. The case involved Stephanie Lenz from Gallitzin, Pennsylvania, who had made a home video of her 13-month-old son dancing to Prince's song "Let's Go Crazy", and posted the 29-second video on YouTube.[99]

In the case of Smith v. Summit Entertainment LLC, professional singer Matt Smith sued Summit Entertainment for the wrongful use of copyright takedown notices on YouTube.[100] He asserted seven causes of action, and four were ruled in Smith's favor.[101]

In April 2012, a court in Hamburg ruled that YouTube could be held responsible for copyrighted material posted by its users. The performance rights organization GEMA argued that YouTube had not done enough to prevent the uploading of German copyrighted music. YouTube responded by stating:

Aquote1.png We remain committed to finding a solution to the music licensing issue in Germany that will benefit artists, composers, authors, publishers and record labels, as well as the wider YouTube community.[102] Aquote2.png


As of 2013, YouTube and GEMA have still not reached a licensing agreement. As a result, most videos containing copyrighted music have been blocked in Germany since 2009.

In April 2013, it was reported that Universal Music Group and YouTube have a contractual agreement that prevents content blocked on YouTube by a request from UMG from being restored, even if the uploader of the video files a DMCA counter-notice. When a dispute occurs, the uploader of the video has to contact UMG.[103][104]

Content ID[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

In June 2007, YouTube began trials of a system for automatic detection of uploaded videos that infringe copyright. The system was regarded by Google CEO Eric Schmidt as necessary for resolving lawsuits such as the one from Viacom, which alleged that YouTube profited from pirated content.[105] The system, which became known as Content ID, creates an ID File for copyrighted audio and video material, and stores it in a database. When a video is uploaded, it is checked against the database, and flags the video as a copyright violation if a match is found.[106]

When this occurs, the content owner has the choice of blocking the video to make it unviewable, tracking the viewing statistics of the video, or adding advertisements to the video. YouTube describes Content ID as "very accurate in finding uploads that look similar to reference files that are of sufficient length and quality to generate an effective ID File".[106] Content ID accounts for over a third of the monetized views on YouTube.[107]

An independent test in 2009 uploaded multiple versions of the same song to YouTube, and concluded that while the system was "surprisingly resilient" in finding copyright violations in the audio tracks of videos, it was not infallible.[108] The use of Content ID to remove material automatically has led to controversy in some cases, as the videos have not been checked by a human for fair use.[109] If a YouTube user disagrees with a decision by Content ID, it is possible to fill in a form disputing the decision.[110] YouTube has cited the effectiveness of Content ID as one of the reasons why the site's rules were modified in December 2010 to allow some users to upload videos of unlimited length.[111]

Controversial content[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

YouTube has also faced criticism over the offensive content in some of its videos. The uploading of videos containing defamation, pornography, and material encouraging criminal conduct is prohibited by YouTube's terms of service.[86] Controversial content has included that pertaining to Holocaust denial and the Hillsborough disaster, in which 96 football fans from Liverpool were crushed to death in 1989.[112][113]

YouTube relies on its users to flag the content of videos as inappropriate, and a YouTube employee will view a flagged video to determine whether it violates the site's terms of service.[86] In July 2008, the Culture and Media Committee of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom stated that it was "unimpressed" with YouTube's system for policing its videos, and argued that "proactive review of content should be standard practice for sites hosting user-generated content". YouTube responded by stating:

Aquote1.png We have strict rules on what's allowed, and a system that enables anyone who sees inappropriate content to report it to our 24/7 review team and have it dealt with promptly. We educate our community on the rules and include a direct link from every YouTube page to make this process as easy as possible for our users. Given the volume of content uploaded on our site, we think this is by far the most effective way to make sure that the tiny minority of videos that break the rules come down quickly.[114] (July 2008) Aquote2.png


In October 2010, U.S. Congressman Anthony Weiner urged YouTube to remove from its website videos of imam Anwar al-Awlaki, saying that by hosting al-Awlaki's messages, "We are facilitating the recruitment of homegrown terror".[115] British security minister Pauline Neville-Jones commented: "These Web sites would categorically not be allowed in the U.K. They incite cold-blooded murder, and as such are surely contrary to the public good." YouTube pulled some of the videos in November 2010, stating they violated the site's guidelines prohibiting "dangerous or illegal activities such as bomb-making, hate speech and incitement to commit violent acts", or came from accounts "registered by a member of a designated foreign terrorist organization".[116] In December 2010, YouTube added "promotes terrorism" to the list of reasons that users can give when flagging a video as inappropriate.[117]

User comments[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Most videos enable users to leave comments, and these have attracted attention for the negative aspects of both their form and content. In 2006, Time praised Web 2.0 for enabling "community and collaboration on a scale never seen before", and added that YouTube "harnesses the stupidity of crowds as well as its wisdom. Some of the comments on YouTube make you weep for the future of humanity just for the spelling alone, never mind the obscenity and the naked hatred".[118] The Guardian in 2009 described users' comments on YouTube as:

Aquote1.png Juvenile, aggressive, misspelled, sexist, homophobic, swinging from raging at the contents of a video to providing a pointlessly detailed description followed by a LOL, YouTube comments are a hotbed of infantile debate and unashamed ignorance – with the occasional burst of wit shining through.[119] Aquote2.png


In September 2008, The Daily Telegraph commented that YouTube was "notorious" for "some of the most confrontational and ill-formed comment exchanges on the internet", and reported on YouTube Comment Snob, "a new piece of software that blocks rude and illiterate posts".[120] The Huffington Post noted in April 2012 that finding comments on YouTube that appear "offensive, stupid and crass" to the "vast majority" of the people is hardly difficult.[121]

On November 6, 2013, Google implemented a new comment system that requires all YouTube users to use a Google+ account in order to comment on videos and making the comment system Google+ oriented. The changes are in large part an attempt to address the frequent criticisms of the quality and tone of YouTube comments. They give creators more power to moderate and block comments, and add new sorting mechanisms to ensure better, more relevant discussions appear at the top.[122] The new system restored the ability to include URLs in comments, which had previously been removed due to problems with abuse.[123][124]

YouTube co-founder Jawed Karim posted the question, "why the fuck do I need a google+ account to comment on a video?" on his YouTube channel to express his negative opinion of the change.[125] The official YouTube announcement[126] received 20,097 "thumbs down" votes and generated more than 32,000 comments in two days.[127] Writing in the Newsday blog Silicon Island, Chase Melvin noted that "Google+ is nowhere near as popular a social media network as Facebook, but it's essentially being forced upon millions of YouTube users who don't want to lose their ability to comment on videos" and "Discussion forums across the Internet are already bursting with outcry against the new comment system". In the same article Melvin goes on to say:[128]

Aquote1.png Perhaps user complaints are justified, but the idea of revamping the old system isn't so bad.

Think of the crude, misogynistic and racially-charged mudslinging that has transpired over the last eight years on YouTube without any discernible moderation. Isn't any attempt to curb unidentified libelers worth a shot? The system is far from perfect, but Google should be lauded for trying to alleviate some of the damage caused by irate YouTubers hiding behind animosity and anonymity.

Aquote2.png


View counts[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

In December 2012, two billion views were removed from the view counts of Universal and Sony music videos on YouTube, prompting a claim by The Daily Dot that the views had been deleted due to a violation of the site's terms of service, which ban the use of automated processes to inflate view counts. This was disputed by Billboard, which said that the two billion views had been moved to Vevo, since the videos were no longer active on YouTube.[129][130]

Censorship and filtering[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

As of September 2012, countries with standing national bans on YouTube include China, Iran, Pakistan, and Turkmenistan.

YouTube is blocked for a variety of reasons, including:[131]

  • limiting public exposure to content that may ignite social or political unrest;
  • preventing criticism of a ruler, government, government officials, religion, or religious leaders;
  • violations of national laws, including:
  • preventing access to videos judged to be inappropriate for youth;
  • reducing distractions at work or school; and
  • reducing the amount of network bandwidth used.

In some countries, YouTube is completely blocked, either through a long term standing ban or for more limited periods of time such as during periods of unrest, the run-up to an election, or in response to upcoming political anniversaries. In other countries access to the website as a whole remains open, but access to specific videos is blocked. In cases where the entire site is banned due to one particular video, YouTube will often agree to remove or limit access to that video in order to restore service.[131]

Businesses, schools, government agencies, and other private institutions often block social media sites, including YouTube, due to bandwidth limitations and the site's inevitable potential for distraction.[131]

Several countries have blocked access to YouTube:

  • Iran temporarily blocked access on December 3, 2006, to YouTube and several other sites, after declaring them as violating social and moral codes of conduct. The YouTube block came after a video was posted online that appeared to show an Iranian soap opera star having sex.[132] The block was later lifted and then reinstated after Iran's 2009 presidential election.[133] In 2012, Iran reblocked access, along with access to Google, after the controversial film Innocence of Muslims' trailer was released on YouTube.[134]
  • Thailand blocked access between 2006 and 2007 due to offensive videos relating to King Bhumibol Adulyadej.[135][136]
  • Some Australian state education departments block YouTube citing an inability to determine what sort of video material might be accessed.[137]
  • China blocked access from October 15, 2007, to March 22, 2008, and again starting on March 24, 2009. Access remains blocked.[138][139][140][141]
  • Morocco blocked access in May 2007, possibly as a result of videos critical of Morocco's actions in Western Sahara.[142] YouTube became accessible again on May 30, 2007, after Maroc Telecom unofficially announced that the denied access to the website was a mere "technical glitch".[143]
  • Turkey blocked access between 2008 and 2010 after controversy over videos deemed insulting to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.[144][145][146] In November 2010, a video of the Turkish politician Deniz Baykal caused the site to be blocked again briefly, and the site was threatened with a new shutdown if it did not remove the video.[147] During the two and a half year block of YouTube, the video-sharing website remained the eighth most-accessed site in Turkey.[148][149] In 2014, Turkey blocked the access for the second time, after "a high-level intelligence leak."[150][151][152]
  • Pakistan blocked access on February 23, 2008, because of "offensive material" towards the Islamic faith, including display of the Danish cartoons of Muhammad.[153] This led to a near global blackout of the YouTube site for around two hours, as the Pakistani block was inadvertently transferred to other countries. On February 26, 2008, the ban was lifted after the website had removed the objectionable content from its servers at the request of the government.[154][155] Many Pakistanis circumvented the three-day block by using virtual private network software.[156] In May 2010, following the Everybody Draw Mohammed Day, Pakistan again blocked access to YouTube, citing "growing sacrilegious content".[157] The ban was lifted on May 27, 2010, after the website removed the objectionable content from its servers at the request of the government. However, individual videos deemed offensive to Muslims posted on YouTube will continue to be blocked.[158][159] Pakistan again placed a ban on YouTube in September 2012, after the site refused to remove the film Innocence of Muslims, with the ban still in operation as of September 2013.[160]
  • Turkmenistan blocked access on December 25, 2009, for unknown reasons. Other websites, such as LiveJournal were also blocked.[161]
  • Libya blocked access on January 24, 2010, because of videos that featured demonstrations in the city of Benghazi by families of detainees who were killed in Abu Salim prison in 1996, and videos of family members of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi at parties. The blocking was criticized by Human Rights Watch.[162] In November 2011, after the Libyan Civil War, YouTube was once again allowed in Libya.[163]
  • Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Russia, and Sudan blocked access in September 2012 following controversy over a 14 minute trailer for the film Innocence of Muslims which had been posted on the site.[164][165][166][167][168][169]
  • In Libya and Egypt, the Innocence of Muslims trailer was blamed for violent protests in September 2012. YouTube stated that "This video—which is widely available on the Web—is clearly within our guidelines and so will stay on YouTube. However, given the very difficult situation in Libya and Egypt we have temporarily restricted access in both countries."[170][171]

Music Key licensing[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

In May 2014, prior to the launch of YouTube's subscription-based Music Key service, the independent music trade organization Worldwide Independent Network alleged that YouTube was using non-negotiable contracts with independent labels that were "undervalued" in comparison to other streaming services, and that YouTube would block all music content from labels who do not reach a deal to be included on the paid service. In a statement to the Financial Times in June 2014, Robert Kyncl confirmed that YouTube would block the content of labels who do not negotiate deals to be included in the paid service "to ensure that all content on the platform is governed by its new contractual terms." Stating that 90% of labels had reached deals, he went on to say that "while we wish that we had [a] 100% success rate, we understand that is not likely an achievable goal and therefore it is our responsibility to our users and the industry to launch the enhanced music experience."[172][173][174][175] The Financial Times later reported that YouTube had reached an aggregate deal with Merlin Network—a trade group representing over 20,000 independent labels, for their inclusion in the service. However, YouTube itself has not confirmed the deal.[50]

See also[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Կաղապար:Spoken Wikipedia

General:

References[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

Notes[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]

  1. Graham Jefferson (November 21, 2005)։ «Video websites pop up, invite postings»։ USA Today։ Վերցված է July 28, 2006 
  2. «YouTube: Sharing Digital Camera Videos»։ University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign։ Վերցված է November 29, 2008 
  3. Cloud, John (December 16, 2006)։ «The Gurus of YouTube»։ Time Magazine։ Վերցված է November 29, 2008 
  4. «Surprise! There's a third YouTube co-founder»։ USA Today։ October 11, 2006։ Վերցված է June 19, 2013 
  5. «The YouTube Gurus»։ Time.com։ December 25, 2006։ Վերցված է June 19, 2013 
  6. Earliest surviving version of the YouTube website Wayback Machine, April 28, 2005. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
  7. Miguel Helft and Matt Richtel (October 10, 2006)։ «Venture Firm Shares a YouTube Jackpot»։ The New York Times։ Վերցված է November 30, 2008 
  8. Sara Kehaulani Goo (October 7, 2006)։ «Ready for Its Close-Up»։ Washington Post։ Վերցված է November 29, 2008 
  9. «Whois Record for www.youtube.com»։ DomainTools։ Վերցված է April 1, 2009 
  10. Alleyne, Richard (July 31, 2008)։ «YouTube: Overnight success has sparked a backlash»։ The Daily Telegraph (London)։ Վերցված է January 17, 2009 
  11. «Me at the zoo»։ YouTube։ April 23, 2005։ Վերցված է August 3, 2009 
  12. «YouTube serves up 100 million videos a day online»։ USA Today։ July 16, 2006։ Վերցված է November 29, 2008 
  13. «comScore Releases May 2010 U.S. Online Video Rankings»։ comScore։ Վերցված է June 27, 2010 
  14. «YouTube's Music Key: Can paid streaming finally hook the masses?» 
  15. Gustav Radell։ «300 timmar film laddas upp på Youtube – i minuten» 
  16. 16,0 16,1 Oreskovic, Alexei (January 23, 2012)։ «YouTube hits 4 billion daily video views»։ Reuters։ Վերցված է January 23, 2012 
  17. 17,0 17,1 «Statistics»։ YouTube Press Office։ Վերցված է March 23, 2014 
  18. «Eric Schmidt, Princeton Colloquium on Public & Int'l Affairs»։ YouTube։ Վերցված է June 1, 2009 
  19. 19,0 19,1 Seabrook, John (January 16, 2012)։ «Streaming Dreams»։ The New Yorker։ Վերցված է January 6, 2012 
  20. Carter Lewis (April 7, 2008)։ «Web could collapse as video demand soars»։ The Daily Telegraph (London)։ Վերցված է April 21, 2008 
  21. «Alexa Traffic Rank for YouTube (three month average)»։ Alexa Internet։ Վերցված է March 30, 2010 
  22. Zappone, Christian (October 12, 2006)։ «Help! YouTube is killing my business!»։ CNN։ Վերցված է November 29, 2008 
  23. Blakely, Rhys (November 2, 2006)։ «Utube sues YouTube»։ The Times (London)։ Վերցված է November 29, 2008 
  24. Reuters (November 14, 2006)։ «Google closes $A2b YouTube deal»։ The Age (Melbourne)։ Վերցված է November 29, 2008 
  25. Yen Yi-Wyn (March 25, 2008)։ «YouTube Looks For the Money Clip»։ Վերցված է March 26, 2008 
  26. Hardy Quentin, Evan Hessel (May 22, 2008)։ «GooTube»։ Forbes Magazine։ Վերցված է August 3, 2009 
  27. Knowledge@wharton։ «Online Video: The Market Is Hot, but Business Models Are Fuzzy»։ Վերցված է July 19, 2012 
  28. Brad Stone and Brooks Barnes (November 10, 2008)։ «MGM to Post Full Films on YouTube»։ The New York Times։ Վերցված է November 29, 2008 
  29. Staci D. Kramer (April 30, 2009)։ «It's Official: Disney Joins News Corp., NBCU In Hulu; Deal Includes Some Cable Nets»։ paidContent.org։ Վերցված է April 30, 2009 
  30. Allen, Katie (November 19, 2009)։ «YouTube launches UK TV section with more than 60 partners»։ The Guardian (London)։ Վերցված է December 13, 2009 
  31. Miguel Helft (January 20, 2010)։ «YouTube takes a small step into the film rental market»։ The New York Times։ Վերցված է August 13, 2010 
  32. Shiels Maggie (January 21, 2010)։ «YouTube turns to movie rental business»։ BBC News։ Վերցված է May 7, 2010 
  33. «YouTube to offer film rentals in the UK»։ BBC News։ October 7, 2011։ Վերցված է October 7, 2011 
  34. Tsotsis, Alexia (May 9, 2011)։ «Google Partners With Sony Pictures, Universal And Warner Brothers For YouTube Movies»։ techcrunch.com։ Վերցված է June 5, 2011 
  35. Sweney Mark (January 20, 2010)։ «Cricket: IPL goes global with live online deal»։ The Guardian (London)։ Վերցված է February 6, 2010 
  36. «YouTube redesigns website to keep viewers captivated»։ AFP։ Վերցված է April 1, 2010 
  37. Chapman, Glenn։ «YouTube serving up two billion videos daily»։ AFP։ Վերցված է May 17, 2010 
  38. «Hurley stepping down as YouTube chief executive»։ AFP։ October 29, 2010։ Վերցված է October 30, 2010 
  39. Whitelaw Ben (April 20, 2011)։ «Almost all YouTube views come from just 30% of films»։ The Daily Telegraph (London)։ Վերցված է April 21, 2011 
  40. Whitney Lance (November 4, 2011)։ «Google+ now connects with YouTube, Chrome»։ CNET։ Վերցված է November 4, 2011 
  41. «YouTube's website redesign puts the focus on channels»։ BBC։ December 2, 2011։ Վերցված է December 2, 2011 
  42. Cashmore, Pete (October 26, 2006)։ «YouTube Gets New Logo, Facelift and Trackbacks – Growing Fast!»։ Վերցված է December 2, 2011 
  43. 43,0 43,1 43,2 «YouTube launches pay-to-watch subscription channels»։ BBC News։ May 9, 2013։ Վերցված է May 11, 2013 
  44. Nakaso Dan (May 7, 2013)։ «YouTube providers could begin charging fees this week»։ Mercury News։ Վերցված է May 10, 2013 
  45. «Google's YouTube to launch kids' app»։ BBC News։ 20 February 2015։ Վերցված է 22 February 2015 
  46. «Learn More: Video not available in my country»։ YouTube Help։ Վերցված է August 4, 2009 
  47. Քաղվածելու սխալ՝ Սխալ <ref> պիտակ՝ languages անվանումով ref-երը տեքստ չեն պարունակում:
  48. Trew James (November 12, 2014)։ «YouTube unveils Music Key subscription service, here's what you need to know»։ Engadget։ Վերցված է November 13, 2014 
  49. Newton Casey (November 12, 2014)։ «YouTube announces plans for a subscription music service»։ The Verge։ Vox Media։ Վերցված է November 13, 2014 
  50. 50,0 50,1 Spangler Todd (November 12, 2014)։ «YouTube Launches 'Music Key' Subscription Service with More Than 30 Million Songs»։ Variety։ Վերցված է November 13, 2014 
  51. 51,0 51,1 Bruno Antony (February 25, 2007)։ «YouTube stars don't always welcome record deals»։ Reuters։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից January 16, 2014-ին 
  52. 52,0 52,1 Tufnell Nicholas (November 27, 2013)։ «The rise and fall of YouTube's celebrity pioneers»։ Wired UK։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից January 13, 2014-ին 
  53. Seabrook John (January 16, 2012)։ «Streaming Dreams / YouTube turns pro»։ The New Yorker։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից January 9, 2014-ին 
  54. «Gangnam Style hits one billion views on YouTube»։ BBC News։ December 21, 2012։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից January 19, 2014-ին 
  55. Thayer Katheryn (October 29, 2013)։ «The Youtube Music Awards: Why Artists Should Care»։ Forbes։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից November 6, 2013-ին 
  56. «2013: Year in Rewind (report title) / Mapping the Landscape (specific section title)»։ Next Big Sound։ January 2014։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից January 20, 2014-ին  "Developing" artists 6.9%; "Undiscovered" artists 2.8%.
  57. Billboard staff (February 20, 2013)։ «Hot 100 News: Billboard and Nielsen Add YouTube Video Streaming to Platforms»։ Billboard։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից January 19, 2014-ին 
  58. 58,0 58,1 58,2 58,3 Anderson Chris (July 2010)։ «How web video powers global innovation»։ TED։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից December 25, 2013-ին  (click on "Show transcript" tab) • Corresponding YouTube video from official TED channel was titled "How YouTube is driving innovation."
  59. Noer Michael (November 2, 2012)։ «One Man, One Computer, 10 Million Students: How Khan Academy Is Reinventing Education»։ Forbes։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից December 29, 2013-ին 
  60. 68th Annual Peabody Awards, May 2009.
  61. Tsukayama Hayley (April 20, 2012)։ «In online video, minorities find an audience»։ The Washington Post։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից January 18, 2014-ին 
  62. Journalism Project Staff (July 16, 2012)։ «PEJ: YouTube & News: A New Kind of Visual Journalism Is Developing, but Ethics of Attribution Have Yet to Emerge»։ Pew Research Center։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից December 30, 2013-ին 
  63. Journalism Project Staff (July 16, 2012)։ «YouTube and News: A New Kind of Visual News»։ Pew Research Center։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից December 3, 2013-ին 
  64. Seelye Katharine Q. (June 13, 2007)։ «New Presidential Debate Site? Clearly, YouTube»։ The New York Times։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից January 19, 2014-ին 
  65. Howard Philip N. (February 23, 2011)։ «The Arab Spring's Cascading Effects»։ Pacific Standard։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից January 8, 2014-ին 
  66. Wong Scott (March 22, 2012)։ «Joseph Kony captures Congress' attention»։ Politico։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից January 8, 2014-ին 
  67. 67,0 67,1 67,2 Cohen Joshua (March 2, 2014)։ «Obama Meets With YouTube Advisors On How To Reach Online Audiences»։ Tubefilter։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից March 3, 2014-ին 
  68. Jenkins Brad L. (March 6, 2014)։ «YouTube Stars Talk Health Care (and Make History) at the White House»։ Washington, D.C.: WhiteHouse.gov։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից March 7, 2014-ին 
  69. Journalism Project Staff (July 16, 2012)։ «YouTube Video Creation–A Shared Process»։ Pew Research Center։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից December 31, 2013-ին 
  70. Reston Maeve (December 12, 2013)։ «Round 2: Obamacare and Hollywood open new social media campaign»։ Los Angeles Times։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից December 28, 2013-ին 
  71. McMorris-Santoro Evan (March 2, 2014)։ «Obama Enlisted YouTube Personalities For Final Health Care Enrollment Push Last Week»։ Buzzfeed։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից March 3, 2014-ին 
  72. CNN Wire Staff (September 14, 2012)։ «U.S. warns of rising threat of violence amid outrage over anti-Islam video»։ CNN։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից December 29, 2013-ին 
  73. Heffernan Virginia (August 27, 2006)։ «Web Guitar Wizard Revealed at Last»։ The New York Times։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից January 16, 2014-ին 
  74. Chu Jon M. (February 2010)։ «The LXD: In the Internet age, dance evolves»։ TED։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից January 18, 2014-ին 
  75. 75,0 75,1 Nichols Michelle (reporter), Simao Paul (editor) (April 14, 2009)։ «YouTube orchestra prepares for Carnegie debut»։ Reuters։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից January 19, 2014-ին 
  76. Levs Josh (interviewer) (March 6, 2010)։ «CNN Newsroom»։ CNN։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից July 22, 2010-ին  Also CNN Saturday Morning News and CNN Sunday Morning (archives).
  77. Smart Richard (May 11, 2011)։ «Crowdsourcing: After Quakebook, We Pray For You»։ The Tokyo Times։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից May 28, 2011-ին 
  78. Hartlaub Peter (October 8, 2010)։ «Dan Savage overwhelmed by gay outreach's response»։ San Francisco Chronicle։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից January 3, 2014-ին 
  79. «It Gets Better»։ WhiteHouse.gov։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից January 3, 2014-ին 
  80. «In wake of Amanda Todd suicide, MPs to debate anti-bullying motion»։ CTV News։ October 14, 2012։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից January 4, 2014-ին 
  81. Biggs John (May 4, 2007)։ «YouTube Launches Revenue Sharing Partners Program, but no Pre-Rolls»։ TechCrunch։ Վերցված է May 20, 2013 
  82. Carmody Tim (March 4, 2013)։ «It's not TV, it's the Web: YouTube partners complain about Google ads, revenue sharing»։ The Verge։ Վերցված է May 20, 2013 
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