Երկրաբանություն[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]
Լարամիդյան օրոգենեզից անմիջապես հետո Ժայռոտ լեռները նման էին Տիբեթին՝ ծովի մակարդակից 6000 մ բարձրությամբ։ Հետագա 60 միլիոն տարվա ընթացքում էրոզիան մերկացրել է բարձր ժայռերը՝ բացելով նրանց տակ գտվող հնագույն շերտերը։ Այսպիսով կազմավորվել են ներկայիս լեռները
Periods of glaciation occurred from the Pleistocene Epoch (1.8 million – 70,000 years ago) to the Holocene Epoch (fewer than 11,000 years ago). These ice ages left their mark on the Rockies, forming extensive glacial landforms, such as U-shaped valleys and cirques. Recent glacial episodes included the Bull Lake Glaciation, which began about 150,000 years ago, and the Pinedale Glaciation, which perhaps remained at full glaciation until 15,000–20,000 years ago.
All of these geological processes exposed a complex set of rocks at the surface. For example, volcanic rock from the Paleogene and Neogene periods (66 million – 2.6 million years ago) occurs in the San Juan Mountains and in other areas. Millennia of severe erosion in the Wyoming Basin transformed intermountain basins into a relatively flat terrain. The Tetons and other north-central ranges contain folded and faulted rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age draped above cores of Proterozoic and Archean igneous and metamorphic rocks ranging in age from 1.2 billion (e.g., Tetons) to more than 3.3 billion years (Beartooth Mountains).
Էկոլոգիա և կլիմա[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]
There are a wide range of environmental factors in the Rocky Mountains. The Rockies range in latitude between the Liard River in British Columbia (at 59° N) and the Rio Grande in New Mexico (at 35° N). Prairie occurs at or below 550 metres (1,800 ft), while the highest peak in the range is Mount Elbert at 4,400 metres (14,440 ft). Precipitation ranges from 250 millimetres (10 in) per year in the southern valleys to 1,500 millimetres (60 in) per year locally in the northern peaks. Average January temperatures can range from −7 °C (20 °F) in Prince George, British Columbia, to 6 °C (43 °F) in Trinidad, Colorado. Therefore, there is not a single monolithic ecosystem for the entire Rocky Mountain Range.
Instead, ecologists divide the Rocky Mountain into a number of biotic zones. Each zone is defined by whether it can support trees and the presence of one or more indicator species. Two zones that do not support trees are the Plains and the Alpine tundra. The Great Plains lie to the east of the Rockies and is characterized by prairie grasses (below roughly 550 metres (1,800 ft)). Alpine tundra occurs in regions above the treeline for the Rocky Mountains, which varies from 3,700 metres (12,000 ft) in New Mexico to 760 metres (2,500 ft) at the northern end of the Rocky Mountains (near the Yukon).
The USGS defines ten forested zones in the Rocky Mountains. Zones in more southern, warmer, or drier areas are defined by the presence of pinyon pines/junipers, ponderosa pines, or oaks mixed with pines. In more northern, colder, or wetter areas, zones are defined by Douglas firs, Cascadian species (such as western hemlock), lodgepole pines/quaking aspens, or firs mixed with spruce. Near treeline, zones can consist of white pines (such as whitebark pine or bristlecone pine); or a mixture of white pine, fir, and spruce that appear as shrub-like krummholz. Finally, rivers and canyons can create a unique forest zone in more arid parts of the mountain range.
The Rocky Mountains are an important habitat for a great deal of well-known wildlife, such as elk, moose, mule and white-tailed deer, pronghorn, mountain goats, bighorn sheep, badgers, black bears, grizzly bears, coyotes, lynxes, and wolverines. For example, North America's largest herds of moose is in the Alberta-British Columbia foothills forests.
The status of most species in the Rocky Mountains is unknown, due to incomplete information. European-American settlement of the mountains has adversely impacted native species. Examples of some species that have declined include western toads, greenback cutthroat trout, white sturgeon, white-tailed ptarmigan, trumpeter swan, and bighorn sheep. In the United States portion of the mountain range, apex predators such as grizzly bears and gray wolves had been extirpated from their original ranges, but have partially recovered due to conservation measures and reintroduction. Other recovering species include the bald eagle and the peregrine falcon.
Պատմություն[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]
Բնիկներ[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]
Since the last great ice age, the Rocky Mountains were home first to indigenous peoples including the Apache, Arapaho, Bannock, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Coeur d'Alene, Kalispel, Crow Nation, Flathead, Shoshone, Sioux, Ute, Kutenai (Ktunaxa in Canada), Sekani, Dunne-za, and others. Paleo-Indians hunted the now-extinct mammoth and ancient bison (an animal 20% larger than modern bison) in the foothills and valleys of the mountains. Like the modern tribes that followed them, Paleo-Indians probably migrated to the plains in fall and winter for bison and to the mountains in spring and summer for fish, deer, elk, roots, and berries. In Colorado, along with the crest of the Continental Divide, rock walls that Native Americans built for driving game date back 5,400–5,800 years. A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that indigenous people had significant effects on mammal populations by hunting and on vegetation patterns through deliberate burning.
European exploration[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]
Recent human history of the Rocky Mountains is one of more rapid change. The Spanish explorer Francisco Vázquez de Coronado—with a group of soldiers, missionaries, and African slaves—marched into the Rocky Mountain region from the south in 1540. The introduction of the horse, metal tools, rifles, new diseases, and different cultures profoundly changed the Native American cultures. Native American populations were extirpated from most of their historical ranges by disease, warfare, habitat loss (eradication of the bison), and continued assaults on their culture.
In 1739, French fur traders Pierre and Paul Mallet, while journeying through the Great Plains, discovered a range of mountains at the headwaters of the Platte River, which local American Indian tribes called the "Rockies", becoming the first Europeans to report on this uncharted mountain range.
Sir Alexander MacKenzie (1764 – March 11, 1820) became the first European to cross the Rocky Mountains in 1793. He found the upper reaches of the Fraser River and reached the Pacific coast of what is now Canada on July 20 of that year, completing the first recorded transcontinental crossing of North America north of Mexico. He arrived at Bella Coola, British Columbia, where he first reached saltwater at South Bentinck Arm, an inlet of the Pacific Ocean.
The Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806) was the first scientific reconnaissance of the Rocky Mountains. Specimens were collected for contemporary botanists, zoologists, and geologists. The expedition was said to have paved the way to (and through) the Rocky Mountains for European-Americans from the East, although Lewis and Clark met at least 11 European-American mountain men during their travels.
Mountain men, primarily French, Spanish, and British, roamed the Rocky Mountains from 1720 to 1800 seeking mineral deposits and furs. The fur-trading North West Company established Rocky Mountain House as a trading post in what is now the Rocky Mountain Foothills of present-day Alberta in 1799, and their business rivals the Hudson's Bay Company established Acton House nearby. These posts served as bases for most European activity in the Canadian Rockies in the early 19th century. Among the most notable are the expeditions of David Thompson (explorer), who followed the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. On his 1811 expedition, he camped at the junction of the Columbia River and the Snake River and erected a pole and notice claiming the area for the United Kingdom and stating the intention of the North West Company to build a fort at the site.
By the Anglo-American Convention of 1818, which established the 49th parallel north as the international boundary west from Lake of the Woods to the "Stony Mountains"; the UK and the USA agreed to what has since been described as "joint occupancy" of lands further west to the Pacific Ocean. Resolution of the territorial and treaty issues, the Oregon dispute, was deferred until a later time.
In 1819, Spain ceded their rights north of the 42nd Parallel to the United States, though these rights did not include possession and also included obligations to Britain and Russia concerning their claims in the same region.
Settlement[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]
After 1802, American fur traders and explorers ushered in the first widespread Caucasian presence in the Rockies south of the 49th parallel. The more famous of these include Americans William Henry Ashley, Jim Bridger, Kit Carson, John Colter, Thomas Fitzpatrick, Andrew Henry, and Jedediah Smith. On July 24, 1832, Benjamin Bonneville led the first wagon train across the Rocky Mountains by using South Pass in the present State of Wyoming. Similarly, in the wake of Mackenzie's 1793 expedition, fur trading posts were established west of the Northern Rockies in a region of the northern Interior Plateau of British Columbia which came to be known as New Caledonia, beginning with Fort McLeod (today's community of McLeod Lake) and Fort Fraser, but ultimately focused on Stuart Lake Post (today's Fort St. James).
Negotiations between the United Kingdom and the United States over the next few decades failed to settle upon a compromise boundary and the Oregon Dispute became important in geopolitical diplomacy between the British Empire and the new American Republic. In 1841, James Sinclair, Chief Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company, guided some 200 settlers from the Red River Colony west to bolster settlement around Fort Vancouver in an attempt to retain the Columbia District for Britain. The party crossed the Rockies into the Columbia Valley, a region of the Rocky Mountain Trench near present-day Radium Hot Springs, British Columbia, then traveled south. Despite such efforts, in 1846, Britain ceded all claim to Columbia District lands south of the 49th parallel to the United States; as resolution to the Oregon boundary dispute by the Oregon Treaty.
Thousands passed through the Rocky Mountains on the Oregon Trail beginning in the 1840s. The Mormons began settling near the Great Salt Lake in 1847. From 1859 to 1864, gold was discovered in Colorado, Idaho, Montana, and British Columbia, sparking several gold rushes bringing thousands of prospectors and miners to explore every mountain and canyon and to create the Rocky Mountains' first major industry. The Idaho gold rush alone produced more gold than the California and Alaska gold rushes combined and was important in the financing of the Union Army during the American Civil War. The transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869, and Yellowstone National Park was established as the world's first national park in 1872. Meanwhile, a transcontinental railroad in Canada was originally promised in 1871. Though political complications pushed its completion to 1885, the Canadian Pacific Railway eventually followed the Kicking Horse and Rogers Passes to the Pacific Ocean. Canadian railway officials also convinced Parliament to set aside vast areas of the Canadian Rockies as Jasper, Banff, Yoho, and Waterton Lakes National Parks, laying the foundation for a tourism industry which thrives to this day. Glacier National Park (MT) was established with a similar relationship to tourism promotions by the Great Northern Railway. While settlers filled the valleys and mining towns, conservation and preservation ethics began to take hold. U.S. President Harrison established several forest reserves in the Rocky Mountains in 1891–1892. In 1905, U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt extended the Medicine Bow Forest Reserve to include the area now managed as Rocky Mountain National Park. Economic development began to center on mining, forestry, agriculture, and recreation, as well as on the service industries that support them. Tents and camps became ranches and farms, forts and train stations became towns, and some towns became cities.
Economy[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]
Industry and development[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]
Economic resources of the Rocky Mountains are varied and abundant. Minerals found in the Rocky Mountains include significant deposits of copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, silver, tungsten, and zinc. The Wyoming Basin and several smaller areas contain significant reserves of coal, natural gas, oil shale, and petroleum. For example, the Climax mine, located near Leadville, Colorado, was the largest producer of molybdenum in the world. Molybdenum is used in heat-resistant steel in such things as cars and planes. The Climax mine employed over 3,000 workers. The Coeur d'Alene mine of northern Idaho produces silver, lead, and zinc. Canada's largest coal mines are near Fernie, British Columbia and Sparwood, British Columbia; additional coal mines exist near Hinton, Alberta, and in the Northern Rockies surrounding Tumbler Ridge, British Columbia.
Abandoned mines with their wakes of mine tailings and toxic wastes dot the Rocky Mountain landscape. In one major example, eighty years of zinc mining profoundly polluted the river and bank near Eagle River in north-central Colorado. High concentrations of the metal carried by spring runoff harmed algae, moss, and trout populations. An economic analysis of mining effects at this site revealed declining property values, degraded water quality, and the loss of recreational opportunities. The analysis also revealed that cleanup of the river could yield $2.3 million in additional revenue from recreation. In 1983, the former owner of the zinc mine was sued by the Colorado Attorney General for the $4.8 million cleanup costs; five years later, ecological recovery was considerable.
The Rocky Mountains contain several sedimentary basins that are rich in coalbed methane. Coalbed methane is natural gas that arises from coal, either through bacterial action or through exposure to high temperature. Coalbed methane supplies 7 percent of the natural gas used in the United States. The largest coalbed methane sources in the Rocky Mountains are in the San Juan Basin in New Mexico and Colorado and the Powder River Basin in Wyoming. These two basins are estimated to contain 38 trillion cubic feet of gas. Coalbed methane can be recovered by dewatering the coal bed, and separating the gas from the water; or injecting water to fracture the coal to release the gas (so-called hydraulic fracturing).
Agriculture and forestry are major industries. Agriculture includes dryland and irrigated farming and livestock grazing. Livestock are frequently moved between high-elevation summer pastures and low-elevation winter pastures, a practice known as transhumance.
Tourism[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]
Every year the scenic areas and pollution of the Rocky Mountains draw millions of tourists. The main language of the Rocky Mountains is English. But there are also linguistic pockets of Spanish and indigenous languages.
People from all over the world visit the sites to hike, camp, or engage in mountain sports. In the summer season, examples of tourist attractions are:
In the United States:
- Yellowstone National Park
- Glacier National Park
- Grand Teton National Park
- Rocky Mountain National Park
- Sawtooth National Recreation Area
- Flathead Lake
In Canada, the mountain range contains these national parks:
- Banff National Park
- Jasper National Park
- Kootenay National Park
- Waterton Lakes National Park
- Yoho National Park
Glacier National Park in Montana and Waterton Lakes National Park in Alberta border each other and are collectively known as Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park
There are numerous provincial parks in the British Columbia Rockies, the largest and most notable being Mount Assiniboine Provincial Park, Mount Robson Provincial Park, Northern Rocky Mountains Provincial Park, Kwadacha Wilderness Provincial Park, Stone Mountain Provincial Park and Muncho Lake Provincial Park.
See also[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]
- Geology of the Rocky Mountains
- List of mountain peaks of the Rocky Mountains
- Rocky Mountains subalpine zone
- Canadian Rockies
- Geography of the United States Rocky Mountain System
- Little Rocky Mountains
- Mountain man
References[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]
- Քաղվածելու սխալ՝ Սխալ
gaddանվանումով ref-երը տեքստ չեն պարունակում:
- Pierce K.L. (1979)։ History and dynamics of glaciation in the northern Yellowstone National Park area։ Washington, DC: U.S. Geological Survey։ էջեր 1 90։ Professional Paper 729-F
- «Southern Rocky Mountains»։ Forest Encyclopedia Network։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից 2012-07-07-ին։ Վերցված է 2010-08-22
- «Northern Rocky Mountains»։ Forest Encyclopedia Network։ Արխիվացված է օրիգինալից 2011-07-21-ին։ Վերցված է 2010-08-22
- Sheridan Scott։ «US & Canada: Rocky Mountains (Chapter 14)»։ Geography of the United States and Canada course notes։ Kent State University։ Արխիվացված է օրիգինալից 2006-09-01-ին
- «Rocky Mountains | mountains, North America»։ Encyclopædia Britannica (անգլերեն)։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից 2017-08-12-ին։ Վերցված է 2017-08-12
- «Events in the West (1528–1536)»։ 2001։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից 10 April 2012-ին։ Վերցված է 15 April 2012
- «The West: Events from 1650 to 1800»։ PBS։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից 2011-07-06-ին
- «Mackenzie: 1789, 1792–1797»։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից 17 January 2013-ին։ Վերցված է 15 April 2012
- «First Crossing of North America National Historic Site of Canada»։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից 12 May 2012-ին։ Վերցված է 15 April 2012
- «Lewis and Clark Expedition: Scientific Encounters»։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից 9 April 2012-ին։ Վերցված է 15 April 2012
- «Rocky Mountain House National Historic Site of Canada»։ 28 Feb 2012։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից 13 May 2012-ին։ Վերցված է 15 April 2012
- «Guide to the David Thompson Papers 1806–1845»։ 2006։ Վերցված է 15 April 2012
- Oldham kit (23 Jan 2003)։ «David Thompson plants the British flag at the confluence of the Columbia and Snake rivers on July 9, 1811»։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից 26 March 2012-ին։ Վերցված է 15 April 2012
- «Treaties in Force»։ 1 November 2007։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից 7 May 2015-ին։ Վերցված է 15 April 2012
- «Historical Context and American Policy»։ Արխիվացված է օրիգինալից 7 July 2012-ին։ Վերցված է 15 April 2012
- «Oregon Trail Interpretive Center»։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից 4 March 2016-ին։ Վերցված է 15 April 2012
- «The Mormon Trail»։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից 5 April 2012-ին։ Վերցված է 15 April 2012
- «The Transcontinental Railroad»։ 2012։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից 12 April 2012-ին։ Վերցված է 15 April 2012
- «Yellowstone National Park»։ 4 April 2012։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից 7 July 2015-ին։ Վերցված է 15 April 2012
- «Canadian Pacific Railway»։ Արխիվացված է օրիգինալից 7 July 2012-ին։ Վերցված է 15 April 2012
- «Glaciers and Glacier National Park»։ 2011։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից 17 January 2013-ին։ Վերցված է 15 April 2012
- Brandt E. (1993)։ «How much is a gray wolf worth?»։ National Wildlife 31: 412
- «Coal-Bed Gas Resources of the Rocky Mountain Region»։ USGS։ USGS fact sheet 158-02։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից 2012-06-28-ին
- «Rocky Mountain National Park»։ National Park Foundation (անգլերեն)։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից 2017-10-04-ին։ Վերցված է 2017-08-12
Further reading[խմբագրել | խմբագրել կոդը]
- Baron Jill (2002)։ Rocky Mountain futures: an ecological perspective։ Island Press։ ISBN 1-55963-953-9.
- Newby Rick (2004)։ The Rocky Mountain region։ Greenwood Press։ ISBN 0-313-32817-X.
- Colorado Rockies Forests ecoregion images at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu (slow modem version)
- North Central Rockies Forests ecoregion images at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu (slow modem version)
- South Central Rockies Forests ecoregion images at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu (slow modem version)
- Sunset on the Top of the Rocky Mountains, CO, Historical Society of Pennsylvania